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Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Provides resources, strategies, and information on conducting research in pharmacy & pharmacology.

Why Search IPA?

International Pharmaceutical Abstracts

International Pharmaceutical Abstracts covers pharmaceutical science & health related literature from 1970 to the present. Includes information on drug therapy, toxicity, & pharmacy practice, & more.

IPA is not indexed, so you'll need to use more synonyms to try to fully search for a topic.

Running a Search

On the basic search page of IPA, construct your search one concept at at time. 

As you search for concepts, your search history appears above.


Search Results

To combine searches, select all the searches you wish to use & click the Combine Searches with AND button.

With a total of 5 results, we'll want to revise our search, perhaps adding synonyms to the arrhythmias concept.

Revising Your Search Terms

Going back to the list of synonyms on the Creating a Well-Focused Question page, I've added 3 new synonyms to the search.  When combined with the cardiac surgery & drug concepts, we've retrieved 38 references, including more relevant results.  We can continue to add synonyms to the other 2 concepts to see if we can find even more relevant results.

Search Tip - Alternate Forms of Words

Because you search IPA using keywords (that is, the database searches exactly what you enter), remember to consider adding alternate forms of words, including British spellings, when appropriate.  Examples include "yogurt" & "yoghurt" & "teenage" & "teenagers" to try to cover the literature more broadly.

Refining Your Search

To narrow your results appropriately, use filters, which you can find just below Search History & to the left of your search results. Subject & Publication Type are especially useful.


Abstract Page, Cited References

On the Abstract page, you can find not only the abstract, but also subject headings, which can help you revise your search.  The Find Citing Articles link shows how often this article has been cited by another article in this same database. The MGet It button links you to electronic access, when available.

Image - IPA abstract page detail