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UMSN Global Nursing | Information Resource Toolkit

Resource for research, teaching and learning for the UMSN Global Nursing community.

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Official Manual (catalog link)

Examples below are taken from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition, “Reference Examples.” 

Official Tutorial

APA 7th ed. Examples

Arrange entries in the Reference List in alphabetical order by surname of the first author. For more than one work by the same author, arrange in date order, earliest first. One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname.

The general format for periodical articles (items published on a regular basis, like newspapers, magazines,and  journals):

Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx

When there are up to twenty authors, spell out all authors’ names. After the nineteenth author, use ellipses before the last author’s name.

APA style requires the addition of a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for journal articles if one is available. Most current journals articles and many historic articles found in PsycINFO will have a DOI.

If retrieving an article from a private database (examples of private databases include ProQuest or PsycInfo), it is not necessary to include the database information in your reference. However, if there is no DOI available for a journal article, you should look up the home page URL of the journal and include it in your reference.

Journal article with a DOI (Manual section 10.1.1)

McCauley, S.M., & Christiansen, M.H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51.

Journal article without a DOI, from a print journal or database (Manual section 10.1.3)

Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership76(1), 26-33.

Goldman, C. (2018, November 28). The complicated calibration of love, especially in adoption. Chicago Tribune.

Journal article without a DOI, with a non-database URL (Manual section 10.1.2)

 Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L.J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S.D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39,

Newspaper article (Manual section 10.1.16)

Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post.

Magazine articles  (Manual section 10.1.15)

Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363(6422), 33-44.

Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: an interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker.

Citing References in Text (Manual, section 8.10)

APA style uses an author-date format for in-text citations. Every reference cited in the text of your document should be included in the reference list. Generally speaking, the author’s last name and year of publication should be inserted into the text when appropriate. If the author’s name is part of the narrative, then the publication year alone is included in parentheses. If the author’s name is not part of the narrative, then both the author’s last name and the publication year is included in the parentheses.

One author (Manual section 8.10)

Karaka (1884) describes the religious customs and traditions of the Parsis settled in Gujarat.

One of the most prominent men of the time had a close relationship with the British (Karaka, 1884).

Multiple authors (Manual section 8.17 - 8.18)

If a work has two authors, then include both names every time the reference occurs in the text.

Forte and Hewitt (2006) propose the idea that

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity. To avoid ambiguity, when the in-text citations of multiple works with three or more authors shorten to the same form, write out as many names as needed to distinguish the references.

Kapoor, Bloom, Montez, et al. (2017)

Kapoor, Bloom, Zucker, et al. (2017)

Book Citations

From Manual section 10.2.20

Brown, L.S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

From Manual section 10.2.21.

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

From Manual section 10.2.22

Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt & Co.

From Manual section 10.2.

For a chapter in an authored book, create a reference for the whole book (see "Book..." examples) and provide the chapter information with the in-text citation only.

From Manual section 10.2

Zalta, E.N. (Ed.). (2019). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University.

From Manual section 10.3.48

Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.).

Entry in an online reference work, no individual author or editor (Manual section 10.3.47)

Merriman-Webster (n.d.). Self-report. In dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from

From Manual section 10.4.50. See also Citing Gov Docs.

Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission. (2012). Strengthening trans-Tasman economic relations.

Citations for Other Types of Resources

To mention a website in general, do not create a reference list entry or an in-text citation. Instead, include the name of the website in the text and provide the URL in parentheses (Manuel 10.16). If you are citing multiple or specific documents on a website, however, follow the example(s) below.

Web article with author listed (Manual 10.16.112)

Martin Lillie, C.M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliancy. Mayo Clinic.

Web article with no author listed (

Justice Sotomayor:  A boon for business? (2009). Retrieved from

Web message/post/comment with author listed (Manual section 10.1.18)

KS in NJ. (2019, January 15). From this article, it sounds like men are figuring out something that women have known forever. I know of many [Comment on the article "How workout buddies can help stave off loneliness"]. The Washington Post.

Provide the comment title or up to the first 20 words of the comment, then write "Comment on the article" and the title of the article on which the comment appeared.

Blog post (Manual section 10.1.17)

Use the author’s name if known, otherwise use a screen name.

Klymkowsky, M. (2018, September 15). Can we talk scientifically about free will? Sci-Ed.

From Manual 10.3.49

List of oldest companies. (2019, January 13). In Wikipedia.

Cite the archived version of the page so that readers can retrieve the version you used. Access the archived version on Wikipedia by selecting "View history" and then the time and date of the version you used. If a wiki does not provide permanent links to archived versions of the page, include the URL for the entry and the retrieval date.

(Example from

O'Donohue, W. (2017). Content analysis of undergraduate psychology textbooks (ICPSR 21600; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR.

Video on website such as YouTube (Manual section 10.12.90)

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2016, September 30). How to diagram a sentence (absolute basics). [Video]. Youtube.

Film (Manual section 10.12.84)

Jackson, P. (Director). (2001). The lord of the rings: The fellowship of the ring [Film; four-disc special extended ed. on DVD]. WingNut Films; The Saul Zaentz Company.

From Manual Section 10.12.87

Korsh, A. (Writer & Director). (2019, September 25). One last con (Season 9, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In D. Liman & D. Bartis (Executive Producers), Suits. Untitled Korsh Company; Universal Content Productions; Open 4 Business Productions.