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Systematic Reviews

Information on how to conduct systematic reviews in the health sciences.

Reporting Results

PRISMA provides a list of items to consider when reporting results. 

  • Study selection:  Give numbers of studies screened, assessed for eligibility, & included in the review, with reasons for exclusions at each stage, ideally with a flow diagram.
  • Study characteristics:  For each study, present characteristics for which data were extracted (e.g., study size, PICOs, follow-up period) & provide the citations.
  • Risk of bias within studies:  Present data on risk of bias of each study &, if available, any outcome level assessment.
  • Results of individual studies:  For all outcomes considered (benefits or harms), present, for each study: (a) simple summary data for each intervention group  (b) effect estimates & confidence intervals, ideally with a forest plot. 
  • Synthesis of results:  Present results of each meta-analysis done, including confidence intervals & measures of consistency.
  • Risk of bias across studies:  Present results of any assessment of risk of bias across studies.
  • Additional analysis:  Give results of additional analyses, if done (e.g., sensitivity or subgroup analyses, meta-regression).

Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement

Study Quality Assessment Tools

We Can Help!

An informationist can write the methods section of your publication in exchange for co-authorship. You can be confident that the methods section of your paper will meet the criteria of a systematic review & that your results will be replicable by other groups.

PRISMA Diagram Generators

Other Reporting Templates

See the EQUATOR network for more guidelines for reporting health research.