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Dental Hygiene - Graduate

Resources for students in the dental hygiene graduate program.

Parts of Citation

When creating citations, make sure you know the standard parts of a citation for different citation types.


Journal article
Parts of a citations for sources found on the web

Specific Reference Formats

While information on standard types of references can be found in the sources listed above, here are a selection of electronic reference formats that can be harder to find.

Journal article on the Internet

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6). Available from:

Article with document number in place of traditional pagination:

Williams JS, Brown SM, Conlin PR. Videos in clinical medicine. Blood-pressure measurement. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 29;360(5):e6. PubMed PMID: 19179309.

Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752. PubMed PMID: 19129307; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2615549.


Barker B, Degenhardt L. Accidental drug-induced deaths in Australia 1997-2001. Sydney (Australia): University of New South Wales, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre; 2003. 6 p.

Letter or email

Reed, Walter (Army Medical Museum, Washington, DC). Letter to: W.S. Halstead (Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD). 1985 Apr 10.

Web site [Internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000-01 [updated 2002 May 16; cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from:

Part of a web site

American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from:

Database on the Internet

Who's Certified [Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. c2000 -   [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from:



  • Provides the reader with enough information so that they can find the book/article/web page that is being used to support your claim make or data you cite in your paper.

    The basic parts are title, author, publication date, and/or page numbers.  The precise style that you use (such as NLM) tells you exactly in which order to place each piece of information  and how to format it.  Formatting includes spaces, periods, commas, and colons and semicolos; if words are in italics or not, and capitalization.  You need to pay close attention to examples given for your style.

In-text Citation:

  • A brief citation that supports the quoted or summarized material used within the text of your paper.  In-text citations contain a limited amount of information which varies by style, from superscripted numbers to names and dates in parentheses.


    • The list of all of the citations in your paper, usually placed at the end of the paper.   This list may have  other names as well, including "References" or "Works Cited".

    Help with Citation Styles

    Help with Writing