The supreme legislative body in the UK is Parliament, which passes laws for England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is granted the position by being head of the majority party in the House of Commons.
The highest judicial court in the UK, the Supreme Court, has been in place since mid-2009. Prior to its creation, the highest court was the House of Lords Appellate Committee.The creation of the new Supreme Court was a reform intended to seperate the judicial system from the legislative system.
The British Monarch is the UK's Head of State. Though it is largely a ceremonial position, the monarch and royal family maintain a strong public presence. The current reigning monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has held the position since 1952. Queen Elizabeth is also the monarch of fifteen other nations, known as the Commonwealth Realm, including Canada and Australia.