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Guide content provided courtesy of Women & Infants Hospital: Care New England Health System

I. Intrapartum Fetal Assessment and resuscitation

Management of Intrapartum FHR

  • American College of O, Gynecologists CoO, Gynecologists. Practice Bulletin No. 116: Management of Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Tracings. Obstetrics & Gynecology.116(5):1232-1240.

Intermittent Auscultation

  • Intermittent Auscultation for Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Surveillance. ACNM Clinical Bulletin Number 11, March 2010 (Replaces Number 9, March 2007). Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health.55(4):397-403.

Intrapartum Management of Category II FHR Tracings

  • Clark SLMD, Nageotte MPMD, Garite TJMD, et al. Intrapartum management of category II fetal heart rate tracings: towards standardization of care. AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 2013;209(2):89-97.

Intrauterine Resuscitation During Labor

  • Garite TJ, Simpson KR. Intrauterine Resuscitation During Labor. CLIN OBSTET GYNECOL.54(1):28-39.

II. Labor Management

​Approaches to Limit Interventions During Labor and Birth
  • Committee Opinion No. 687: Approaches to Limit Intervention During Labor and Birth. OBSTET GYNECOL.129(2):e20-e28.

Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping

  • Committee Opinion No. 684: Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping After Birth. Obstetrics & Gynecology.129(1):e5-e10.

Prevention and Management of Obstetric Lacerations

  • Prevention and management of obstetric lacerations at vaginal delivery. Practice Bulletin No. 165. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol.128:e1–15. 2016.

Persistent Occiput Posterior

  • Barth WH. Persistent occiput posterior. OBSTET GYNECOL.125(3):695-709.

Meta-analysis  of Passive Descent vs Immediate Pushing

  • Brancato RM, Church S, Stone PW. A Meta-Analysis of Passive Descent Versus Immediate Pushing in Nulliparous Women With Epidural Analgesia in the Second Stage of Labor. JOGNN.37(1):4-12.

Methods of Induction of Labour

  • Mozurkewich EL, Chilimigras JL, Berman DR, et al. Methods of induction of labour: A systematic review. BMC PREGNANCY CHILDBIRTH.11(1):84-84.

Physiologic Partograph

  • Neal JL, Lowe NK, Nacht AS, Koschoreck K, Anderson J. Pilot Study of Physiologic Partograph Use Among Low‐Risk, Nulliparous Women With Spontaneous Labor Onset. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health.61(2):235-241.

Failed Labor Induction

  • Rouse DJ, Weiner SJ, Bloom SL, et al. Failed labor induction: Toward an objective diagnosis. OBSTET GYNECOL.117(2):267-272.

Second-Stage Labor Duration

  • Rouse DJMD, Weiner SJMS, Bloom SLMD, et al. Second-stage labor duration in nulliparous women: relationship to maternal and perinatal outcomes. AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 2009;201(4):357.e351-357.e357.

The Natural History of the Normal First Stage of Labor

  • Zhang J, Troendle J, Mikolajczyk R, Sundaram R, Beaver J, Fraser W. The Natural History of the Normal First Stage of Labor. Obstetrics & Gynecology.115(4):705-710.

Patterns of Spontaneous Labor with Normal Neonatal Outcomes

  • Zhang J, Landy HJ, Ware Branch D, et al. Contemporary Patterns of Spontaneous Labor With Normal Neonatal Outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology.116(6):1281-1287.

III. Preventing Cesarean Delivery


Vaginal Birth After Previous Cesarean Delivery

  • American College of O, Gynecologists CoO, Gynecologists. ACOG Practice bulletin no. 115: Vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery. OBSTET GYNECOL.116(2):450-463.

Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean: New Insights

  • Caughey ABMDP, Cahill AGMDM, Guise J-MMDMPH, Rouse DJMDM. Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery. AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 2014;210(3):179-193.

Vaginal Birth After Cesarean: New Insight

  • National institutes of health consensus development conference statement: Vaginal birth after cesarean: New insights march 8-10, 2010. OBSTET GYNECOL.115(6):1279-1295.

IV. Intrapartum Pain Relief Measures

Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia

  • Practice Bulletin No. 177: Obstetric Analgesia and Anesthesia. Obstetrics & Gynecology.129(4):e73-e89.

The Coping with Labor Algorithm

  • Roberts L, Gulliver B, Fisher J, Cloyes KG. The Coping With Labor Algorithm: An Alternate Pain Assessment Tool for the Laboring Woman. J MIDWIFERY WOMEN HEALTH. 2010;55(2):107-116.

Safety and Risks of Nitrous Oxide Labor Analgesi

  • Rooks JP. Safety and Risks of Nitrous Oxide Labor Analgesia: A Review. J MIDWIFERY WOMEN HEALTH.56(6):557-565.

Nonpharmacologic Relief of Pain During Labor

  • Simkin PP, O'Hara M. Nonpharmacologic relief of pain during labor: Systematic reviews of five methods. AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 2002;186(5):S131-S159.

Restriction of Oral Intake During Labor

  • Sperling, J.,  Dahlke, J., Sibai, B. Restriction of oral intake during labor: whither are we bound? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 214(5): 592-596. 2016.

V. Obstetric Emergencies

Postpartum Hemorrhage

  • ACOG practice bulletin no. 76: Postpartum hemorrhage. OBSTET GYNECOL.108(4):1039-1046.

Shoulder Dystocia

  • Sokol RJ, Blackwell SC. ACOG practice bulletin: Shoulder dystocia. Number 40, November 2002. (Replaces practice pattern number 7, October 1997). International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2003;80(1):87-92.

Obstetric Emergencies

  • Dahlke JDMD, Bhalwal AMD, Chauhan SPMD. Obstetric Emergencies. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics. 2017;44(2):231-243.

Preventing Maternal Death

  • Clark SL, Hankins GDV. Preventing Maternal Death: 10 Clinical Diamonds. Obstetrics & Gynecology.119(2, Part 1):360-364.


Suggested Readings

Oxytocin: New Perspectives


  • Clark SL, Simpson KR, Knox GE, Garite TJ. Oxytocin: New Perspectives on an Old Drug. Obstetric Anesthesia Digest.29(4):181-181.

Fetal Weight and Cesarean Delivery 

  • Froehlich RJ, Sandoval G, Bailit JL, et al. Association of Recorded Estimated Fetal Weight and Cesarean Delivery in Attempted Vaginal Delivery at Term. Obstetrics & Gynecology.128(3):487-494.

Fetal Descent in Labor

  • Graseck A, Tuuli M, Roehl K, Odibo A, Macones G, Cahill A. Fetal Descent in Labor. Obstetrics & Gynecology.123(3):521-526.

Oxygen for Intrauterine Resuscitation

  • Hamel MSMD, Anderson BLMDM, Rouse DJMDM. Oxygen for intrauterine resuscitation: of unproved benefit and potentially harmful. AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 2014;211(2):124-127.

Induction of Labor

  • Hannah ME, Ohlsson A, Farine D, et al. Induction of Labor Compared with Expectant Management for Prelabor Rupture of the Membranes at Term. N ENGL J MED.334(16):1005-1010.

Epidural Analgesia for Labor and Delivery

  • Hawkins JL. Epidural Analgesia for Labor and Delivery. N ENGL J MED.362(16):1503-1510.

Obstetric Maneuvers

  • Hoffman MK, Bailit JL, Branch DW, et al. A Comparison of Obstetric Maneuvers for the Acute Management of Shoulder Dystocia. Obstetrics & Gynecology.117(6):1272-1278.

Magnesium Sulfate

  • Hunter LA, Gibbins KJ. Magnesium Sulfate: Past, Present, and Future. J MIDWIFERY WOMEN HEALTH.56(6):566-574.

Late vs Early Clamping

  • Hutton EK, Hassan ES. Late vs Early Clamping of the Umbilical Cord in Full-term Neonates: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Controlled Trials. JAMA-J AM MED ASSN.297(11):1241-1252.

2008 NICHD

  • MacOnes GA, Hankins GDV, Spong CY, Hauth J, Moore T. The 2008 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop report on electronic fetal monitoring: Update on definitions, interpretation, and research guidelines. OBSTET GYNECOL.112(3):661-666.

Antepartum Fetal Evaluation

  • Manning FA, Platt LD, Sipos L. Antepartum fetal evaluation: Development of a fetal biophysical profile. AMER J OBSTET GYNECOL. 1980;136(6):787-795.

Postpartum Hemorrhage

  • Oyelese Y, Ananth CV. Postpartum Hemorrhage: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Causes. CLIN OBSTET GYNECOL.53(1):147-156.

Promoting, Protecting and Supporting Normal Birth

  • Romano AM, Lothian JA. Promoting, Protecting, and Supporting Normal Birth: A Look at the Evidence. JOGNN.37(1):94-105.

The Fetal Occiput Posterior Position

  • Simkin P. The Fetal Occiput Posterior Position: State of the Science and a New Perspective. BIRTH-ISS PERINAT CARE.37(1):61-71.

Pushing/Bearing Down Methods for the Second Stage of Labour

  • Lemos A, Amorim MMR, Amorim MMR, et al. Pushing/bearing down methods for the second stage of labour. COCHRANE DATABASE SYST REV. 2015;2015(10):CD009124.