This page lists a number of ways to get permission to use an audiovisual work. Remember that you do not need a license if you are using something that is not copyrightable or is in the public domain, or if you are using it in a way that does not implicate one of the rights of copyright holders or is permitted by a user’s right.
If you want to license a work or a right not covered by licenses from the collective management organizations listed above, going directly to the studio or the distributor is another option. For instance, if you are seeking a license for clips or stills from a studio film, it is common to get that license from the studio. Licensing departments for many major studios and distributors are linked in the list below.
Many audiovisual works contain "layers" of copyrights and other rights that may be controlled by separate rightsholders. In some cases, (e.g., when you obtain a public performance license from a licensor such as Criterion or Swank) the licensor provides all the rights you need. In other cases, a single licensor may not be able to provide all the rights you need. For example, in some cases, a studio may not be able to license the background music in a film clip.