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Literature Reviews

Information and resources on how to conduct different types of literature reviews in all disciplines.

Literature Searching using Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence tools are fast-changing. Make sure to check each tool for features you are looking for. 


Click the tool name below to jump directly there.

ChatGPT Elicit AI
Research Rabbit Connected Papers
Semantic Scholar tbd


Research Rabbit — Citation-based Mapping: similar / early / later works

100s of millions of academic articles and covers more than 90%+ of materials that can be found in major databases used by academic institutions (such as Scopus, Web of Science, and others).

  • See its FAQs page. Search algorithms were borrowed from NIH and Semantic Scholar.
  • The default “Untitled Collection” will collect your search histories, based on which Research Rabbit will send you recommendations for three types of related results: Similar Works / Earlier Works / Later Works, viewable in graph such as Network, Timeline, First Authors etc.

  • Zotero integration: importing and exporting between these two apps.

  • Example SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality
    [Login required] Try it to see its Similar Works, Earlier Works and Later Works or other documents.
  • Export Results - Findings can be exported in BibTxt, RIS or CSV format.


Video Introduction to Research Rabbit

Elicit — AI-Powered Research Assistant — finding papers, filtering study types, automating research flow, brainstorming, summarizing and more.

Elicit is a research assistant using language models like GPT-3 to automate parts of researchers’ workflows. Currently, the main workflow in Elicit is Literature Review. If you ask a question, Elicit will show relevant papers and summaries of key information about those papers in an easy-to-use table.  

  • Find answers from 175 million papers. FAQS
  • Example - How do mental health interventions vary by age group?   /   Fish oil and depression
    Results: [Login required]
    (1) Summary of top 4 papers > Paper #1 - #4 with Title, abstract, citations, DOI, and pdf
    (2) Table view: Abstract / Interventions / Outcomes measured / Number of participants
    (3) Relevant studies and citations.
    (4) Click on Search for Paper Information to find - Metadata about Sources (SJR etc.) >Population (age etc.) >Intervention (duration etc.) > Results (outcome, limitations etc.) and > Methodology (detailed study design etc.)
    (5) Export as BIB or CSV
  • How to Search
    Enter a research question or multiple keywords about a research question.
    Enter the title of a paper.
    The stared or selected studies will lead to Semantic Scholar's site for detailed information for all citations.
  • Export Results - Various ways to export results.
  • How to Cite - Includes the URL in the citation, for example:
    Ought; Elicit: The AI Research Assistant;; accessed xxxx/xx/xx




Semantic Scholar — Scientific Literature Search Engine — Finding semantically similar research papers

A free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature.

  • Over 200 millions of papers from all fields of science.
  • Example - nursing student mental health "scoping review"

    The 4000+ results can be sorted by Fields of Study, Date Range, Author, Journals & Conferences

  • Save the papers in your Library folder. The Research Feeds will recommend similar papers based on the items saved.

  • Example - SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality
    Total Citations: 22,438   [Note: these numbers were gathered when this guide was created]
    Highly Influential Citations 2,001
    Background Citations 6,109
    Methods Citations 3,273 
    Results Citations 385

  • Semantic Reader
    "Semantic Reader is an augmented reader with the potential to revolutionize scientific reading by making it more accessible and richly contextual" . It "uses artificial intelligence to understand a document’s structure and merge it with the Semantic Scholar’s academic corpus, providing detailed information in context via tooltips and other overlays." <>.

    Skim Papers Faster
    "Find key points of this paper using automatically highlighted overlays. Available in beta on limited papers for desktop devices only."  <>. Press on the pen icon to activate the highlights.

  • TLDRs (Too Long; Didn't Read)
    Try this example. Press the pen icon to reveal the highlighted key points.
    TLDRs "are super-short summaries of the main objective and results of a scientific paper generated using expert background knowledge and the latest GPT-3 style NLP techniques. This new feature is available in beta for nearly 60 million papers in computer science, biology, and medicine..." <>