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Library Research Guides

Islamic Manuscript Studies

Resources for the study of manuscripts produced in the Islamic world and the manuscript cultures they represent.

Reading Lists

Not intended to be comprehensive, but to provide an introduction to each subject  with additional depth for those who desire it, with some topics covered more extensively than others.

For further readings, consult the relevant sections of Déroche et al. Islamic Codicology (2006) (chapter footnotes and "Guide to Further Reading") as well as Gacek's Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008). Additional bibliographies are listed topically.

Introductory Studies on Codicology and History of the Book

Afshar, Iraj. "Manuscripts in the domain of the Persian language." In General introduction to Persian literature, Ed. J.T.P.de Bruijn (London & New York: Tauris, 2009): 408-429

Arnold, Thomas and Adolf Grohmann. The Islamic Book: A Contribution to its Art and History from the VII-XVIII Century. [Paris] : The Pegasus Press, 1929.

Atiyeh, George N., Ed. The Book in the Islamic World : The Written Word and Communication in the Middle East. Albany : State University of New York Press, 1995.

Codicologica: [towards a science of handwritten books = vers une science du manuscrit = Bausteine zur Handschriftenkunde], Eds. A. Gruys and J. P. Gumbert. Leiden : E.J. Brill, 1976-1980.

COMSt Handbook =  Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies: An Introduction, Eds. Alessandro Bausi et al. Hamburg: Tredition, 2015. Available online http://www1.uni-hamburg.de/COMST/handbookonline.html 

Déroche, François, et al. Manuel de codicologie des manuscrits en écriture arabe. [Paris] : Bibliothèque nationale de France, c2000.

-------. al-Madkhal ilá ʻilm al-kitāb al-makhṭūṭ bi-al-ḥarf al-ʻArabī. Landan : Muʼassasat al-Furqān lil-Turāth al-Islāmī, 2005.

-------. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script. London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006.

Déroche, François. Le livre manuscrit arabe : préludes à une histoire. Paris: [Paris] : Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004.

Endress, Gerhard. "Handschriftenkunde." In Grundriss der arabischen Philologie, Ed. Wolfdietrich Fischer (Wiesbaden : Reichert, c1982-), Bd. 1 Sprachwissenschaft, 271-315.

Gacek, Adam. "A Select Bibliography of Arabic Language Publications Concerning Arabic Manuscripts." Manuscripts of the Middle East (MME) 1 (1986): 106-108.

-------. The Arabic Manuscript Tradition: A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

-------. “Manuscripts.” In Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Josef W. Meri (New York: Routledge, 2006): vol.2, 474-476.

-------. The Arabic Manuscript Tradition: A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography – Supplement. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

-------. Arabic Manuscripts: A Vademecum for Readers. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

Gruendler, Beatrice. "Aspects of Craft in the Arabic Book Revolution." In Globalization of Knowledge in the Post-Antique Mediterranean, 700-1500, edited by Sonja Brentjes and Jürgen Renn (London and New York: Routledge2016): 31-66.

al-Ḥalwajī, ʻAbd al-Sattār. Naḥwa ʻilm makhṭūṭāt ʻArabī. al-Qahirah: Dar al-Qahirah, 2004.

Maniaci, Marilena and Paola F. Munafo, Eds. Ancient and medieval book materials and techniques (Eria, 18-25 septembre 1992), 2 vols. Vatican City: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1993 [Studi e testi 357-358].

Manuscript Cultures: Mapping the Field, Eds. Jörg Quenzer, Dmitry Bondarev, and Jan-Ulrich Sobisch. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014.

Pedersen, Johannes. The Arabic Book. translated by Geoffrey French. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Richard, Francis. Le livre persan. Paris : Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2003.

Roper, Geoffrey. "The History of the Book in the Muslim World." In The Oxford Companion to the Book, Eds. Michael F.Suarez and H.R.Woudhuysen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010): 321-339.

Roberts, Colin H. and T. C. Skeat. The Birth of the Codex. London: Oxford University Press, c1983.

Roper, Geoffrey, Ed. The History of the Book in the Middle East. Farnam: Ashgate, 2013.

Roxburgh, David J. “Books.” In Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Josef  W. Meri (New York: Routledge, 2006): vol.1, 114-117.

Sayyid, Ayman Fuʾād. al-Kitāb al-ʻArabī al-makhṭūṭ wa-ʻilm al-makhṭūṭāt. al-Qāhirah : al-Dār al-Miṣrīyah al-Lubnānīyah, 1997.

Waley, Muhammad Isa. "Problems and Possibilities in Dating Persian Manuscripts." In Les manuscrits du Moyen-Orient: essais de codicologie et paléographie. Actes du Colloque d'Istanbul (Istanbul, 26-29 mai 1986). François Déroche, ed. (Paris: Institut français d’études anatoliennes et Bibliothèque Nationale, 1989): 7-15.

Bindings and Bookmaking

see also

"VII. 8. Bookbinding" pp.242-246 and "VII. 5. Lacquer" pp.240-241 " in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) 

"VII. 6. Bookbinding" pp.148-149 in Gacek,  The Arabic Manuscript Tradition - Supplement (2008)

Hepworth, Paul. Bibliography on Islamic Papers, Book Structures, Pigments and their Conservation. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ConservationBibliographies.html                                 

Jacobs, David. Islamic Bibliography [Bookbinding, Conservation, Paper, Painting, Calligraphy and Qurans, History]. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ArtsOfTheBook.pdf


Historical Arabic treatises (listed chronologically)

ʻUmdat al-kuttāb wa-ʿuddat dhawī al-albāb attributed to al-Muʽizz Ibn Badīs (d.454/1062):

Ibn Bādīs, al-Muʻizz. "ʻUmdat al-kuttāb wa-ʻuddat dhawī al-albāb." Ed. ʻAbd al-Sattār al-Ḥalwajī and ʻAlī ʻAbd al-Muḥsin Zakī. Majallat Maʻhad al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʻArabīyah 17 (1971): 44-172.

-----. ʻUmdat al-kuttāb wa-ʻuddat dhawī al-albāb. Ed. Iyād Khālid al-Ṭabbāʻ. Dimashq: Wizārat al-Thaqāfah fī al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah al-Sūrīyah, 2007.

Bosch, Gulnar. "The staff of the scribes and the implements of the discerning: an excerpt." Ars Orientalis, 4 (1961): 1-13.

Levey, Martin. Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and Its Relation to Early Chemistry and Pharmacology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 52, 4. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1962.

Kitāb al-Taysīr fī ṣināʻat al-tasfīr attributed to Bakr ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ishbīlī (d.628 or 9 / 1230-1 or 1231-2):

al-Ishbīlī, Bakr ibn Ibrāhīm. Kitāb al-Taysīr fī ṣināʻat al-tasfīr. Ed. Kanūn, ʿAbd Allāh. Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid ( = Ṣaḥīfat Majallat al-Maʻhad al-Miṣrī lil-Dirāsāt al-Islāmīyah fī Madrīd) 7-8 (1959-60): 1-42, 197-199.

-----. Kitāb al-Taysīr fī ṣināʻat al-tasfīr. Ed. al-Saʻīd Bin-Mūsá. al-Dār al-Bayḍāʾ: Maṭbaʻat al-Najāḥ al-Jadīdah, 1999.

Gacek, Adam. "Arabic Bookmaking and Terminology as Portrayed by Bakr al-Ishbīlī in his Kitāb al-taysīr fī ṣināʻat al-tasfīr." Manuscripts of the Middle East 5 (1990-1991): 106-113.

al-Mukhtaraʽ fī funūn min al-ṣunaʽ attributed to al-Malik al-Muẓaffar Yūsuf ibn ʻUmar al-Ghassānī (d.694/1294):

Gacek, Adam. "Instructions on the art of bookbinding attributed to the Rasulid ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-Muẓaffar." Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient. Ed. François Déroche and Francis Richard. (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1997): 57-63.

al-Malik al-Muẓaffar Yūsuf ibn ʻUmar. al-Mukhtaraʻ fī funūn min al-ṣunaʻ, ed. Muḥammad ʻĪsā Ṣāliḥiyya. al-Kuwayt: Muʼassasat al-Shirāʻ al-ʻArabī, 1989.

Tadbīr al-safīr fī ṣināʿat al-tasfīr attributed to Ibn Abī Ḥamīdah (or Ḥumaydah, fl.9th/15th cent.):

Gacek, Adam. "Ibn Abī Ḥamīdah's didactic poem for bookbinders." Manuscripts of the Middle East, 6 (1991): 41-58.

Ṣināʻat tasfīr al-kutub wa-ḥall al-dhahab attributed to Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Sufyānī (fl.1029/1619):

al-Sufyānī, Abī al-ʻAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad. Ṣināʻat tasfīr al-kutub wa-ḥall al-dhahab. Ed. Prosper Ricard. Paris: P. Geuthner, 1925.

Levey, Martin. "Translation of Abū'l-ʻAbbās Aḥmed ibn Muḥammed al Sufyānī Ṣināʻat tasfīr al-kutub wa-ḥall al-dhahab (Art of Bookbinding and of Gilding) from the Arabic text published by P. Ricard, 1925." In Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and Its Relation to Early Chemistry and Pharmacology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 52, 4 (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1962): 51-55.

Kayfīyat tasfīr al-kutub attributed to ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz ibn Abī Bakr al-Rasmūkī (d.1065/1654):

al-Rasmūkī, ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz ibn Abī Bakr ibn Aḥmad ibn Yaʻqūb. Kayfīyat tasfīr al-kutub. Ed. al-Saʻīd Binmūsá. [Rabat]: al-Saʻīd Binmūsá, 2008.


Secondary Studies

Afshar, Iraj. “Inscriptions on the Covers of Handwritten Books.” Anthology Of Iranian Studies / Majmūʿah-i Maqālāt Muṭālaʿāt Īrānī 8 (2004): 1-40.

-----. “Inscriptions on the Covers of Islamic Manuscripts: An Introductory Study." Manuscripta Orientalia 10, 1 (2004): 42-51.

-----. “Bookbinding (article 2).” Encyclopaedia Iranica (Online Edition). 20 July 2005, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bookbinding-sahhafi-jeld-sazi-2.

-----., ed. Ṣaḥḥāfī-i Sunnatī: Majmūʻahʼi Pānzdah Guftār va Kitābshināsī dar Bārah-ʼi Varrāqī, Ṣaḥḥāfī, Vaṣṣālī, Mujallidgarī az Yādgārhā-yi Hunar-i Īrānī va Islāmī. Tihrān : Kitābkhānah-ʼi Markazī va Markaz-i Asnād-i Dānishgāh-i Tihrān, 1357 [1978].  

Aga-Oglu, Mehmet. Persian Bookbindings of the Fifteenth Century. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1935.

Akimushkin, O. F. "Central Asian manuscripts' bindings (1730s-1930s)." Manuscripta Orientalia 7 / 3 (2001): 4-8.

Aslanapa, Oktay. "The Art of Bookbinding." In The Arts of the Book in Central Asia 14th-16th Centuries, Ed. Basil Gray (Boulder, CO: Shambhala / UNESCO, 1979): 59-91.

Arıtan, Ahmet Sâim. "Türk Cild San'atı. The Turkish Art of Book Binding." In Türk Kitap Medeniyeti. Turkish Book Civilization, ed. Alper Çeker (Istanbul: İstanbul Büyük Belediyesi Kültür A.Ş., 2008): 60-97.

Bādaḥdaḥ, Mājid ibn ʻAbbūd. Ṣināʻat al-kitāb wa-al-kitābah fī al-Ḥijāz. [al-Riyāḍ]: Muʼassasat al-Furqān lil-Turāth al-Islāmī, Farʻ Mawsūʻat Makkah al-Mukarramah wa-al-Madīnah al-Munawwarah, 2006. (2 v.)

Baydar, Nil. "Structural Features and Conservation Problems of Turkish Manuscripts and Suggestions for Solutions." In Works of Art on Paper: Books, Documents and Photographs: Techniques and Conservation. Contributions to the Baltimore Congress 2-6 September 2002, ed. Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith (London: International Institute for Conservation, 2002): 5-10.

-----. "Documentation and Conservation of an Islamic Manuscript from the Eleventh Century." In Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 9: Proceedings of the Ninth International Seminar held at the University of Copenhagen 14th-15th April 2005, ed. Gillian Fellows-Jensen and Peter Springborg (Copenhagen : Museum Tusculanum Press, 2006): 37-48.

-----. "Newly Identified Techniques in the Production of Islamic Manuscripts." In Conservation and the Eastern Mediterranean: Contributions to the Istanbul Congress, 20-24 September 2010, ed. Christina Rozeik, Ashok Roy, and David Saunders. (London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2010): 69-73.

Benson, Jake. “Satisfying an Appetite for Books: Innovation, Production, and Modernization in Later Islamic Bookbinding.” In Persian Language, Literature, and Culture: New Leaves, Fresh Looks, Ed. Kamran Talattof (London: Routledge, 2015): 365-394.

Beny, Ana, Teresa Espejo Arias, and Juan Pablo Arias Torres. "Andalusi Binding: A Model of Islamic Binding from the Iberian Peninsula, 14th–16th Century." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 6, 2-3 (2015): 157-173.

----- and Kristine Rose Beers. "An Inspiration for Conservation: An Historic Andalusi Binding Structure." In Suave Mechanicals: Essays on the History of Bookbinding, Volume 3, ed. Julia Miller (Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press, 2016): 160-195.

Binmūsá, al-Saʻīd. Muḥāḍarāt fī ṣināʻat tasfīr al-kitāb al-Islāmī al-makhṭūṭ wa-ṣiyānatih. [al-Rabāṭ : s.n., 2008].

"Bookbinding," In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: an Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script (London : Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006): 253-310.

Bosch, Gulnar K. "Islamic Bookbindings: Twelfth to Seventeenth Centuries." PhD diss., The University of Chicago, 1952.

-----. “Medieval Islamic Bookbinding: Doublures as a Dating Factor.” In Proceedings of the twenty-sixth International Congress of Orientalists, New Delhi , January 4-10, 1964. Vol. IV (Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1964): 217-221.

-----. "'The Staff of the Scribes and Implements of the Discerning:' An Excerpt." Ars Orientalis IV (1991): 1-13.

Bosch, Gulnar, John Carswell, and Guy Petherbridge. Islamic Bindings and Bookmaking: a Catalogue of an Exhibition, The Oriental Institute, The University of Chicago, May 18-August 18, 1981. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981. (available online http://oi.uchicago.edu/pdf/IslamicBindings.pdf

Chabrov, G.N. "On the study of Central Asian book-binding." Manuscripta Orientalia 6, no. iv (2000): 60-66.

D'Ottone, Arianna. "Some remarks on Yemeni medieval bookbindings." In Arabica 2007, Ed. Angelo Arioli (Rome: Nuova Cultura & Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Facoltà di Studi Orientali, 2007): 47-65 (available online http://www.fsor.it/lasapor/online/vlm/arabica_2007/dottone.pdf)

de Vries, Herre. "Reading the Book’s History. Understanding the Repairs and Rebindings on Islamic Manuscripts in the Vatican Library and Their Implications for Conservation." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 7, 3 (2016): 339 – 383.

di Bella, Marco. "An Attempt at Reconstruction of Early Islamic Bookbinding: The Box Binding." In Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 12. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Seminar Held at the University of Copenhagen 14th-16th October 2009, ed. Matthew Driscoll (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2011): 99-115. 

-----. "From Box Binding to Envelope-Flap Binding: The Missing Link in Transitional Islamic Bookbinding." In Suave Mechanicals: Essays on the History of Bookbinding, Volume 3, ed. Julia Miller (Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press, 2016): 264-279. 

Dreibholz, Ursula. "Some Aspects of Early Islamic Bookbindings from the Great Mosque of Sana'a, Yemen." In Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient, ed. François Déroche and Francis Richard (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 1997): 15-34.

Edwards, Holly. “Qajar Lacquerware.” In Islamic Art from Michigan Collections, ed. Carol Garrett Fisher and Alan Washburn Fisher (Lansing, MI: Kresge Art Gallery, Michigan State University, 1982): 48-56.

Ettinghausen, Richard. “The Covers of the Morgan Manâfiʻ Manuscript and Other Early Persian Bookbindings.” In Studies in Art and Literature for Belle da Costa Greene, ed. Dorothy Miner (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1954): 459-473.

-----. “Near Eastern Book Covers and Their Influence on European Bindings: A Report on the Exhibition ‘History of Bookbinding’ at the Baltimore Museum of Art, 1957-58.” Ars Orientalis 3 (1959): 113-131.

Fischer, Barbara. "Sewing and Endband in the Islamic Technique of Binding." Restaurator 7, 4 (1986): 181-201

Gacek, Adam. "Arabic Bookmaking and Terminology as Portrayed by Bakr al-Ishbīlī in his Kitāb al-taysīr fī ṣināʻat al-tasfīr." Manuscripts of the Middle East 5 (1990-1991): 106-113.

-----. "Ibn Abī Ḥamīdah's Didactic Poem for Bookbinders." Manuscripts of the Middle East 6 (1991): 41-58.

-----. "Instructions on the Art of Bookbinding Attributed to the Rasulid Ruler of Yemen al-Malik al-Muẓaffar." In Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient, ed. François Déroche and Francis Richard (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1997): 57-63.

-----. "Scribes, Amanuenses, and Scholars. A Bibliographic Survey of Published Arabic Literature from the Manuscript Age on Various Aspects of Penmanship, Bookmaking, and the Transmission of Knowledge" Manuscripta Orientalia 10, ii (2004): 3-29.

Gardner, K. B. “Three Early Islamic Bookbindings.” British Museum Quarterly 26 (1962): 28-30.

Gast, Monika. “A History of Endbands: Based on a Study by Karl Jäckel” The New Bookbinder  3 (1983): 42-58.

Gruendler, Beatrice. "Aspects of Craft in the Arabic Book Revolution." In Globalization of Knowledge in the Post-Antique Mediterranean, 700-1500, edited by Sonja Brentjes and Jürgen Renn (London and New York: Routledge, 2016): 31-66.

Haldane, Duncan. Islamic Bookbindings in the Victoria and Albert Museum. London : World of Islam Festival Trust in association with the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1983.

-----. “Bookbinding (article 1).” Encyclopaedia Iranica, IV/4 pp. 363-365; available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bookbinding-article1

Hobbs, Lindsey. "Persian Lacquer Bindings." The New Bookbinder 35 (2015): 49-56

Jacobs, David. "Middle Eastern Bookbinding - The Islamic Book." In Contributions to the Symposium on the Care and Conservation of Middle Eastern manuscripts, The University of Melbourne, Australia, 26-27 November 2008 (Melbourne: Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, The University of Melbourne, 2008): 14-21.

Kropf, Evyn. “Historical Repair, Recycling, and Recovering Phenomena in the Islamic Bindings of The University of Michigan Library: Exploring the Codicological Evidence.” In Suave Mechanicals: Essays on the History of Bookbinding vol. I, ed. Julia Miller (Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press, 2013): 1-41.

Manūnī, Muḥammad. Tārīkh al-wirāqah al-Maghribīyah :ṣināʻat al-makhṭūṭ al-Maghribī min al-ʻaṣr al-wasīṭ ilá al-fatrah al-muʻāṣirah. al-Rabāṭ : al-Mamlakah al-Maghribīyah, Jāmiʻat Muḥammad al-Khāmis, Kullīyat al-Ādāb wa-al-ʻUlūm al-Insānīyah, 1991.

Özen, Mine Esiner. Türk Cilt Sanatı. Ankara: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 1998.

Ohta, Alison. “Filigree Bindings of the Mamluk Period.” Muqarnas 21, Essays in Honor of J. M. Rogers (2004): 267-276

Pankhurst, Richard. "The Manuscript Bindings of Harar: A Preliminary Examination." Azania: Journal Of The British Institute In Eastern Africa 22 (1987): 47-54.  

 
Petersen, Theodore C. "Early Islamic Bookbindings and Their Coptic Relations." Ars Orientalis 1 (1954): 41-64

Polosin, Val V. “Muslim bindings with al-Khalidiyani double borders.” Manuscripta Orientalia 2, 2 (1996): 9-12

Pugliese, Silvia. "Islamic Bookbindings in the Manuscript Collection of the Marciana National Library in Venice." In Conservation and the Eastern Mediterranean: Contributions to the Istanbul Congress, 20-24 September 2010, eds. Christina Rozeik, Ashok Roy, and David Saunders (London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2010): 50-55.

Raby, Julian and Zeren Tanındı. Turkish Bookbinding in the 15th century: the Foundation of an Ottoman Court Style. London: Azimuth Editions, on behalf of l'Association Internationale de Bibliophilie, 1993.

Robinson, Basil W. “Qajar Lacquer.” Muqarnas 6 (1989): 131-146.

Rogers, Mary Eliza. "Books and Book-binding in Syria and Palestine. Part II." The Art Journal 30 (1868): 113-115.

Rose, Kristine. "Conservation of the Turkish Collection at the Chester Beatty Library: a New Study of Turkish Book Construction," In Conservation and the Eastern Mediterranean: Contributions to the Istanbul Congress, 20-24 September 2010, ed. Christina Rozeik, Ashok Roy, and David Saunders (London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2010): 45-49.

Russo, Maria Luisa. "Islamic Bookbindings in the University of Turin. Some Particular Features and Preservation Issues" Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 6, 1 (2015): 47-65

Scheper, Karin. "Refining the Classification of Islamic Manuscript Structures" In New Approaches to Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration, ed. Patricia Engel, et al. (Horn/Wien: Verlag Berger, 2011): 357-383.

-----. "Three Very Specific Binding Features, Shedding New Light on Islamic Manuscript Structures." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 4, 1 (2013): 82-109.

-----. The Technique of Islamic Bookbinding: Methods, Materials and Regional Varieties. Leiden: Brill, 2015.

Scheper, Karin and Arnoud Vrolijk. "Made in China. Physical Aspects of Islamic Manuscripts from Xinjiang in Leiden University Library." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 2, 1 (2011): 50-69.

Stanley, Tim. "The Rise of the Lacquer Binding." In Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran 1501-1576, Ed. Jon Thompson and Sheila R. Canby (Milano: Skira, 2003): 184-201.

Szirmai, J.A. "The Islamic Codex." In The Archaeology of Medieval Bookbinding (Aldershot, Hants : Ashgate, c1999): 51-61.

Tanındı, Zeren. "Manuscript Production in the Ottoman Palace Workshop." Manuscripts of the Middle East 5, (1990-1991): 67-98.

_____. "Safavid Bookbinding." In Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran 1501-1576, Ed. Jon Thompson and Sheila R. Canby (Milano: Skira, 2003): 154-183.

-----. "Gilding and Binding in the Muslim World." In Arts and Crafts in the Muslim World. Proceedings of the International Congress on Islamic Arts and Crafts, Isfahan, 04-09 October, 2002, ed. Nazeih Taleb Maarouf, Semiramis Çavuşoğlu (Istanbul, 2008): 397-412.

Vasilyeva, O. “Gilt-stamped Bindings of the Last Quarter of the 16th Century and the Qazwin Workshop” Manuscripta Orientalia 15, 2 (2009): 38-56.

Viola, Natalia. "Reliures islamiques: specificités soudanaises." Histoire et civilisation du livre: Revue internationale 5 (2009): 357-374.

Weisweiler, Max. Der Islamische Bucheinband des Mittelalters. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1962.

Wright, Elaine. The Look of the Book: Manuscript Production in Shiraz, 1303-1452. Washington, D.C. : Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution ; Seattle : University of Washington Press, 2012.

Calligraphy

See also "VII. 2. Calligraphy" in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)


Afā, ʻUmar, and Muḥammad Maghrāwī. al-Khaṭṭ al-Maghribī: Tārīkh wa-wāqiʻ wa-āfāq. Casablanca: Wizārat al-Awqāf wa-al-Shuʼūn al-Islāmīyah, 2007.

Akimushkin, Oleg F. "The sources of ‘The treatise on calligraphers and painters’ by Qāẓī Aḥmad Qumī." Manuscripta Orientalia 1/1 (1995): 5-11.

-------. "Muraqqaʻ. Album of Indian and Persian miniatures of the 16-18th centuries and the models of the Persian calligraphy of the same period." Manuscripta Orientalia 1/3 (1995): 63-67.

-------. "The calligraphy of the St. Petersburg album." In The St. Petersburg muraqqaʿ: album of Indian and Persian miniatures from the 16th through the 18th century and specimens of Persian calligraphy by ʿImād al-Ḥasanī, v.2 Commentary (Lugano: ARCH Foundation; Milan: Leonardo Arte, 1996): 39-46.

Blair, Sheila. Islamic Calligraphy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, c2006.

Derman, M. Uğur. "The Art of Turkish calligraphy." In Letters in gold : Ottoman calligraphy from the Sakıp Sabancı collection, Istanbul (New York : Metropolitian Museum of Art : Distributed by H.N. Abrams, c1998): 2-44.

Déroche, François. "İstanbul seen from Cairo." In M.Uğur Derman armağanı: altmışbeşinci yaşı münasebetiyle sunulmuş tebliğler [= M.Uğur Derman Festschrift: papers presented on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday], Ed. İrvin Cemil Schick (Istanbul: Sabancı Üniversitesi İletişim Merkezi, 2000): 261-270.

Ekhtiar, Maryam. "Practice makes perfect: the art of calligraphy exercises (Siyāh mashq) in Iran." Muqarnas 23, (2006): 107-130.

Ernst, Carl W. "The spirit of Islamic calligraphy: Bābā Shāh Iṣfahānī's Adāb al-mashq." Journal Of The American Oriental Society 112, 2 (1992): 279-286.

Gacek, Adam. "Al-Nuwayrī's classification of Arabic scripts." Manuscripts Of The Middle East 2 (1987): 126-130.

-------. "Arabic scripts and their characteristics as seen through the eyes of Mamluk authors." Manuscripts Of The Middle East 4 (1989): 144-149.

George, Alain. The Rise of Islamic Calligraphy. London: Saqi, 2010.

Mansour, Nassar. Sacred Script: Muhaqqaq in Islamic Calligraphy. London : I.B. Tauris, 2011.

McWilliams, Mary and David J. Roxburgh. Traces of the Calligrapher: Islamic Calligraphy In Practice, C. 1600-1900. Houston,TX : Museum of Fine Arts ; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Qādī Aḥmad. Calligraphers and Painters: A Treatise by Qādī Aḥmad, Son of Mīr Munshī (circa A.H. 1015/A.D. 1606), translated from the Persian by V. Minorsky. Freer Gallery of Art Occasional Papers 3, 2. Washington, DC, 1959. Also available in interactive online edition (2016) http://www.asia.si.edu/research/downloads/occasional-papers/Qadi-Ahmad-2017-lo.pdf 

Roxburgh, David J. The Persian Album, 1400-1600: From Dispersal to Collection. New Haven : Yale University Press, c2005.

Safadi, Yasin. Islamic Calligraphy. London : Thames and Hudson, 1978.

Safwat, Nabil F. The Art of the Pen: Calligraphy of the 14th to 20th Centuries  London: Oxford University Press, 1996. (The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, v.5)

Schimmel, Annemarie. Calligraphy and Islamic Culture. New York: New York University Press, 1984.

Schick, İrvin Cemil. "The iconicity of Islamic calligraphy in Turkey." Res (Anthropology And Aesthetics) 53-54, (2008): 211-224.

Soucek, Priscilla P. "The Arts of Calligraphy." In The Arts of the Book in Central Asia 14th-16th Centuries, Ed. Basil Gray (Boulder, CO: Shambhala / UNESCO, 1979): 7-34.

Zakariya, Mohamed. "Islamic Calligraphy: A Technical Overview." In Brocade of the Pen: The Art of Islamic Writing, Ed. Carol Garrett Fisher (East Lansing, MI: Kresge Art Museum, Michigan State University, 1991): 1-17.

-------. “The Hilye of the Prophet Muhammad.” Seasons (Autumn-Winter 2003-4): 13-22.

Cataloguing

see also

>> "X. Cataloguing" in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)

>> "Chapter 4. Cataloguing" COMSt Handbook =  Comparative Oriental Manuscript Studies: An Introduction, Eds. Alessandro Bausi et al. (Hamburg: Tredition, 2015): 467-537 Available online https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2RNTL2u2zMrLXYyU0RLeG1UejQ/view?usp=sharing

>> Cataloguing resources offered by The International Treasury of Islamic Manuscripts Available online at http://www.manuscript-treasury.net/content/cataloguing.xml?XSL.lastPage.SESSION=/content/cataloguing.xml


Adang, Camilla. "The Catalogue as Research Tool: The Arabic MSS from the Yahuda Collection at the JUNL." Israel Oriental Studies 19 (1999): 495-499.

Azimi, Habibollah and Ayoob Nazi. "The Status of Cataloguing Manuscripts in Large Libraries in Iran." Library Collections, Acquisitions, & Technical Services 35 (2011): 106–117.

Baker, Colin F. "Towards a Database of the Arabic Manuscripts in The British Library: A Case History." 66th IFLA Council and General Conference, Jerusalem, Israel, 13-16 August 2000. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, available online http://archive.ifla.org/IV/ifla66/papers/087-141e.htm

Berthier, Annie and Marie Geneviève Guesdon. "Codicology and the History of Collections." In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: an Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic script (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006): 345–360

Birnbaum, Eleazar. "Turkish Manuscripts: Cataloguing Since 1960 and Manuscripts Still Uncatalogued. Part 1: The Berlin Catalogue." Journal of the American Oriental Society 103, no. 2 (April-June 1983): 413-420.

Gacek, Adam. "Some Remarks on the Cataloguing of Arabic Manuscripts." Bulletin (British Society for Middle Eastern Studies) 10 (2) (1983): 173–179.

-----. "Appendix V. Describing the Manuscript." In Adam Gacek, Arabic Manuscripts: A Vademecum for Readers. (Leiden: Brill, 2009): 333–338.

al-Ḥalwajī, ʻAbd al-Sattār. Naḥwa ʻilm makhṭūṭāt ʻArabī. al-Qahirah: Dar al-Qahirah, 2004.

Kucuk, Mehmet E., and Richard J. Hartley. "Towards a National Cooperative Cataloguing System for Manuscripts in Turkey." International Cataloguing and Bibliographic Control 25, no. 3 (1996): 54-56.

Kulayb, Faḍl Jamīl and Fuʼād Muḥammad Khalīl ʻUbayd. al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʻArabīyah: fahrasatuhā ʻilmīyan wa-ʻamalīyan. ʻAmmān: Dār Jarīr lil-Nashr wa-al-Tawzīʻ, 2006.

Kut, Günay. "Some Aspects of the Cataloguing of Turkish Manuscripts." Manuscripts of the Middle East 3, (1988): 60-68.

Musnik, Sara Yontan. "Ottoman Authors Revisited: Name Authority Records at the BnF [= Yeniden Ele Alınan Şekliyle Osmanlı YazarlarıFransız Ulusal Kütüphanesi]." Türk Kütüphaneciliği / Turkish Librarianship 26, 3 (2012): 564-577.

Pass, Gregory. Descriptive Cataloging of Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance, and Early Modern Manuscripts. Chicago: Association of College and Research Libraries, 2003.

Rafi, Ali Mashhadi and Soode Samiepour. "The Role of Scribe Related Entries in Facilitating the Retrieval Process in Persian Manuscript Collections." IFLA World Library and Information Conference, 78th IFLA General Conference and Assembly 11-17 August 2012, Helsinki, Finland (http://conference.ifla.org/past/ifla78/session-212.htm)

Sellheim, Rudolf. "The Cataloguing of Arabic Manuscripts as a Literary Problem." Oriens 23 (1974): 306–311.

Şeşen, Ramazan. "Turkish Manuscripts and the Publication of Their Catalogues." In The Significance of Islamic Manuscripts. Proceedings of the Inaugural Conference of Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation 30th November-1st December 1991, Ed. J.Cooper (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1992): 55-70.

Soltani, Poori. "Historical Aspects of Cataloging and Classification in Iran." Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 35, 1 (2002): 187-207.

Soualah, Mohammed Ourabah and Mohamed Hassoun. "Which Metadata for Ancient Arabic Manuscripts Cataloguing?" In Metadata Harmonization: Bridging Languages of Descripton. 21-­23 September 2011, The Hague, Netherlands. Thomas Baker, Diane I. Hillmann and Antoine Isaac, eds. (Dublin Core Metadata Initiative, 2011): 137-46. http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/index.php/pubs/article/view/3629

Türkmen, Hüseyin. Türkiye Kütüphaneleri Yazma Eserler Katalogları :1923-2006.  İstanbul : Kitabevi, 2010.

Witkam, Jan Just. Arabic Manuscripts in the Library of the University of Leiden and Other Collections in The Netherlands. A General Introduction to the Catalogue.  Leiden: Brill, 1982.

-----. "Aims and Methods of Cataloguing Manuscripts of the Middle East." In Les manuscrits du Moyen-Orient: essais de codicologie et paléographie. Actes du Colloque d'Istanbul (Istanbul, 26-29 mai 1986). François Déroche, ed. (Paris: Institut français d’études anatoliennes et Bibliothèque Nationale, 1989): 1–5.

Collecting, Ownership and Popular Culture

see also "I. 7. Libraries" and "I. 8. History of manuscripts" in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)


Afshar, Iraj. "Possession: Some Islamic Manuscripts." In Ex Oriente. Collected papers in honour of Jiří Bečka, Eds. Adéla Křikavová & Luděk Hřebíček (Prague: Czech Academy of Sciences, Oriental Institute, 1995): 23-32.

Akimushkin, Oleg F. "An Entire Library in a Single Binding." Manuscripta Orientalia 4, 3 (1998): 62-69.

Anameriç, Hakan and Faith Rukanci. "Libraries in the Middle East During the Ottoman Empire (1517-1918)." Libri: International Journal Of Libraries & Information Services 59, 3 (September 2009): 145-154.

Artan, Tülay. "Problems Relating to the Social History Context of the Acquisition and Possession of Books as Part of Collections of Objets d'Art in the 18th Century." In  Art turc. Turkish art. 10th International Congress of Turkish Art. 10e Congrès international d'art turc. Genève -Geneva 17-23 September 1995 17-23 Septembre 1995. Actes-Proceedings, Eds. François Déroche, et al. (Geneva: Fondation Max Van Berchem, 1999): 87-92.

Bibliography on Manuscript Libraries in Turkey and the Publications on the Manuscripts Located in These Libraries, Ed. Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu. Istanbul : Research Centre for Islamic History, Art, and Culture (IRCICA), 1995.

Çağman, Filiz and Zeren Tanındı. "Remarks on Some Manuscripts from the Topkapi Palace Treasury in the Context of Ottoman-Safavid Relations." Muqarnas 13, (1996): 132-148.

Dawkins, J. "The Seal of Solomon." The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2 (Oct., 1944):145-150.

Déroche, François. "A Note on the Mediaeval Inventory of the Manuscripts Kept in the Great Mosque of Kairouan." In Writings and Writing : Investigations in Islamic Text and Script in Honour of Dr. Januarius Justus Witkam, Ed. Robert M. Kerr and Thomas Milo (Cambridge: Archetype, 2013): 67-86.

Eche, Youssef. Les bibliothèques arabes publiques et semi-publiques en Mésopotamie, en Syrie et en Egypte au Moyen-Age. Damascus: Institut Français de Damas, 1967.

Elayyan, Ribhi M. "The History of the Arabic-Islamic Libraries 7th-14th Centuries." International Library Review 22 (1990): 119-135.

Erdem, Yahya. "Second Hand Book Sellers and Travellers Bookselling in the Ottoman State." In The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Vol. 4: Culture and Arts, Ed. Kemal Çiçek (Ankara: Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, 2000): 886-896.

Erkinov, A. "Prayer Against Fever, Connected with the Name of Khwāja Aḥmad Yasawī." Manuscripta Orientalia 10, 2 (2004): 53-56.

Erünsal, İsmail E. "The Ottoman Libraries and the Ottoman Librarian Tradition." In The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Vol. 4: Culture and Arts, Ed. Kemal Çiçek (Ankara: Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, 2000): 867-885.

_____. Ottoman Libraries: A Survey of the History, Development and Organization of Ottoman Foundation Libraries. [Cambridge, Mass.]: The Department of Near Eastern Languages and Literatures, Harvard University, 2008.

Gacek, Adam. "The Use of 'kabīkaj' in Arabic Manuscripts." Manuscripts of the Middle East 1 (1986): 49-53.

_____. "Ownership Statements and Seals in Arabic Manuscripts." Manuscripts of the Middle East 2 (1987): 88-95.

Gianni, Celeste. History of Libraries in the Islamic World: A Visual Guide. Fano: Gimiano Editore, 2016. See also http://www.academia.edu/23227008/History_of_Libraries_in_the_Islamic_World_A_Visual_Guide

Hall, Bruce S. and Charles C. Stewart. "The Historic 'Core Curriculum' and the Book Market in West Africa." In The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Manuscript Culture, Arabic Literacy and Intellectual History in Muslim Africa, Eds. Graziano Krätli and Ghislaine Lydon. (Leiden: Brill, 2011): 109-174. 

Hirschler, Konrad. Medieval Damascus: Plurality and Diversity in an Arabic Library. The Ashrafiya Library Catalogue. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016.

Jong, Frederick de and Jan Just Wikam. "The Library of al-šayḵ Ḵālid al-Šahrazūrī al-Naqšbandī (d. 1242/1827). A Facsimile of the Inventory of his Library (MS Damascus, Maktabat al-Asad, no.259)." Manuscripts of the Middle East 2 (1987): 68-87.

Kabir, M. "Libraries and Academies During the Buwayhid Period." Islamic Culture 33 (1959): 31-33.

Kohlberg, Etan. A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work : Ibn Tawus and His Library. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992.

Kropf, Evyn. "The Yemeni Manuscripts of the Yahuda Collection at the University of Michigan: Provenance and Acquisition." Chroniques du manuscrit au Yémen no 13 (janvier 2012) available online https://cmy.revues.org/1974.

Liebrenz, Boris. "The Library of  Aḥmad al-Rabbāṭ. Books and Their Audience in 12th to 13th / 18th to 19th Century Syria." In Marginal Perspectives on Early Modern Ottoman Culture: Missionaries, Travellers, Booksellers, Eds. Ralf Elger und Ute Pietruschka (Halle (Saale): Zentrum für Interdisziplinäre Regionalstudien - Vorderer Orient, Afrika, Asien (ZIRS), 2013): 17-59.

Lydon, Ghislaine. "A Thirst for Knowledge: Arabic Literacy, Writing Paper and Saharan Bibliophiles in the Southwestern Sahara." In The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Manuscript Culture, Arabic Literacy and Intellectual History in Muslim Africa, Eds. Graziano Krätli and Ghislaine Lydon. (Leiden: Brill, 2011): 35-72.

Mackensen, Ruth S. "Four Great Libraries of Medieval Baghdad." Library Quarterly 2 (1932): 279-299.

-------. "Background of the History of Moslem Libraries." American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 51 (2) (1935): 114-125.

Roxburgh, David J. "Bahrām Mīrzā and His Collections." In Safavid Art and Architecture, Ed. Sheila R.Canby (London: The British Museum Press, 2002): 37-42.

_____. The Persian Album, 1400-1600: From Dispersal to Collection. New Haven : Yale University Press, c2005.

Sakal, Fahri. "The Book in Ottoman Family." In The Great Ottoman-Turkish Civilisation. Vol. 4: Culture and Arts, Ed. Kemal Çiçek (Ankara: Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, 2000): 897-903.

Pedersen, Johannes. The Arabic Book. trans., Geoffrey French. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Pinto, Olga. "The Libraries of the Arabs During the Time of the Abbasides." Islamic Culture 3 (1929): 210-243.

Pourhadi, Ibrahim. "Muslim Libraries During the Middle Ages in the Works of Orientalists." In Beacon of Knowledge: Essays in Honor of Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Ed. M. Faghfoory (Louisville, 2003): 439-467.

Sayyid, Fuʾād. "Naṣṣān qadīmān fī iʻārat al-kutub." Majallat Maʿhad al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʿArabīyah 4, 1 (1958): 125-136.

Seyller, John. "The Inspection and Valuation of Manuscripts in the Imperial Mughal Library." Artibus Asiae 57, iii-iv (1997): 243-349.

Shoshan, Boaz. "High Culture and Popular Culture in Medieval Islam." Studia Islamica 73 (1991): 67-107.

Singleton, Brent D. "African Bibliophiles: Books and Libraries in Medieval Timbuktu." Libraries & Culture 39, 1 (Winter, 2004): 1-12.

Stanley, Tim. "The books of Umur Bey." Muqarnas 21, (2004): 323-331.

Tanındı, Zeren. "Bibliophile Aghas (Eunuchs) at Topkapı Saray." Muqarnas 21, (2004): 333-343.

Toorawa, Shawkat M. Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr and Arabic Writerly Culture: A Ninth-century Bookman in Baghdad. London: Routledge Curzon, 2005.

Touati, Houari. L'armoire à sagesse: bibliothèques et collections en islam. Paris: Aubier, 2003.

Uluç, Lale. "The Ottoman Contribution to Sixteenth Century Shirazi Manuscript Production." In Art turc. Turkish art. 10th International Congress of Turkish Art. 10e Congrès international d'art turc. Genève -Geneva 17-23 September 1995 17-23 Septembre 1995. Actes-Proceedings, Eds. François Déroche, et al. (Geneva: Fondation Max Van Berchem, 1999): 681-693.

_____. "Majālis al-’Ushshāq: Written in Herat, Copied in Shiraz and Read in Istanbul." In M. Uğur Derman 65 Yaş Armağanı/65th Birthday Festschrift, Ed. İrvin C. Schick (Istanbul: Sabancı University, 2000): 569-603.

Wasserstein, David J. "The Library of al-Ḥakam II al-Mustanṣir and the Culture of Islamic Spain." Manuscripts of the Middle East 5 (1990-91): 99-105.

Witkam, Jan Just. "Lists of Books in Arabic Manuscripts." Manuscripts of the Middle East 5 (1990-1991): 123-136.

Conservation

AATA Online Abstracts of International Conservation Literature http://aata.getty.edu/Home

BCIN Bibliographic Database of the Conservation Information Network http://www.bcin.ca/English/home_english.html


Hepworth, Paul. Bibliography on Islamic Papers, Book Structures, Pigments and their Conservation. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ConservationBibliographies.html                                 

Jacobs, David. Islamic Bibliography [Bookbinding, Conservation, Paper, Painting, Calligraphy and Qurans, History]. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ArtsOfTheBook.pdf

Brill, Laura. Indian Handmade Paper Bibliography. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/IndianHandmadePaper.pdf


al-Abbadi, Husam. "La protección y la restauración de los papeles y códices: algunas precisiones contenidas en varias fuentes árabes medievales. Cuestiones referentes a la conservación." Qurṭuba 6, (2001): 254-257.

Barkeshli, Mandana and G. H. Ataie. “pH Stability of Saffron Used in Verdigris as an Inhibitor in Persian Miniature Paintings.” Restaurator 23/iii (2002): 154-164.

Baydar, Nil. "Structural Features and Conservation Problems of Turkish Manuscripts and Suggestions for Solutions." In Works of Art on Paper: Books, Documents and Photographs: Techniques and Conservation. Contributions to the Baltimore Congress 2-6 September 2002, ed. Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith (London: International Institute for Conservation, 2002): 5-10.

-----. "Documentation and Conservation of an Islamic Manuscript from the Eleventh Century." In Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 9: Proceedings of the Ninth International Seminar held at the University of Copenhagen 14th-15th April 2005, ed. Gillian Fellows-Jensen and Peter Springborg (Copenhagen : Museum Tusculanum Press, 2006): 37-48.

----- and Paul Hepworth. "Two New Case Studies: The Rejoining of a Text-block and Binding and a New Use for Remoistenable Tissue. In Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 11: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Seminar held at the University of Copenhagen 24th-25th April 2008, eds. Matthew James Driscoll and Ragnheiđur Mósesdóttir (Copenhagen : Museum Tusculanum Press, 2009): 135-150.

Beny, Ana and Kristine Rose Beers. "An Inspiration for Conservation: An Historic Andalusi Binding Structure." In Suave Mechanicals: Essays on the History of Bookbinding, Volume 3, ed. Julia Miller (Ann Arbor, MI: The Legacy Press, 2016): 160-195.

Couvrat Desvergnes, Amélie. "Of books & men: Past cultural practices and methods of Islamic manuscripts preservation in Iran and India. Part 1: Identification of historical interleaving materials" COMSt Newsletter 7 (January 2014): 15-22.

-----. "Of books & men: Past cultural practices and methods of Islamic manuscripts preservation in Iran and India. Part 2: Pest control and Indo-Iranian manuscripts" COMSt Newsletter 8 (July 2014): 14-17.
____. "Historical interleaves in Moroccan manuscripts from Qatar Collections: technical analysis and significance" News in Conservation: The e-paper of the International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works 55 (August 2016): 8-10 
Available online at https://www.iiconservation.org/node/6548 and

Hillcoat-Imanishi, Anna, Pauline Webber and Michael Wheeler. “Conservation, Mounting, and Storage Solutions for two Hamzanama Folios.” The Paper Conservator 23 (1999): 26-35.

Jacobs, David and Barbara Rodgers. “Developments in Islamic Bindings and Conservation in     the Oriental and India Office Collections of the British Library.” In The Conservation and    Preservation of Islamic Manuscripts. Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 18-19th November 1995, ed. Yusuf Ibish and George Atiyeh. (London: al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1996): 81-92.

Jarjis, Raik. “Ion Beam Codicology: Its Potential in Developing Scientific Conservation of Islamic Manuscripts” In The Conservation and    Preservation of Islamic Manuscripts. Proceedings of the Third Conference of al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 18-19th November 1995, ed. Yusuf Ibish and George Atiyeh. (London: al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1996): 93-117

Kural, Nurçin. “The Preservation of Ottoman Manuscripts.” In Conservation and the Eastern Mediterranean: Contributions to the Istanbul Congress, 20-24 September 2010, ed. Christina Rozeik, Ashok Roy, and David Sauders (London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2010): 40-44.   

Madani, Zubair Ahmed. "The Development of a Conservation Treatment Approach for Islamic Miniatures." In Works of Art on Paper: Books, Documents and Photographs: Techniques and Conservation. Contributions to the Baltimore Congress 2-6 September 2002, Eds. Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith (London: International Institute for Conservation, 2002): 144-148.

Rose, Kristine. “The Conservation of Islamic Manuscript Material at Cambridge University Library, with Particular reference to Ms. Add. 269.” In Charles Melville, ed. Shahnama Studies I, Pembroke Papers 5 (Cambridge: Centre of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 2006): 277-286.

-----. "Conservation of the Turkish Collection at the Chester Beatty Library: a New Study of Turkish Book Construction," In Conservation and the Eastern Mediterranean: Contributions to the Istanbul Congress, 20-24 September 2010, ed. Christina Rozeik, Ashok Roy, and David Saunders (London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 2010): 45-49.

Scheper, Karin. "The Conservation of the Middle Eastern Manuscript Collection in the Leiden University Library: Results of a Conservation Assessment Survey." In Contributions to the Symposium on the Care and Conservation of Middle Eastern Manuscripts. The University of Melbourne, Australia, 26-28 November 2007, ed. Robyn Sloggett (Melbourne : Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, 2008): 66-73.

-----. "Islamic Manuscripts in a Western Research Library: the Conservation Approach of Leiden University Library." In Care and Conservation of Manuscripts 12. Proceedings of the Twelfth International Seminar Held at the University of Copenhagen 14th-16th October 2009,  ed. Matthew J. Driscoll (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 2011): 151-169.

Smith, Martha. “The Conservation of Islamic Book Pages.” AIC Book and Paper Group Annual 9 (1990): 118–119 (available online at http://cool.conservation-us.org/coolaic/sg/bpg/annual/v09/bp09-10.html )

Inks and Paints (Media)

see also

"II. 5. Inks, inkwells, pens and other writing accessories" in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)

Hepworth, Paul. Bibliography on Islamic Papers, Book Structures, Pigments and their Conservation. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ConservationBibliographies.html                                 

Jacobs, David. Islamic Bibliography [Bookbinding, Conservation, Paper, Painting, Calligraphy and Qurans, History]. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ArtsOfTheBook.pdf


Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics. Washington : National Gallery of Art, c1986-

Barkeshli, Mandana and G. H. Ataie. "pH Stability of Saffron Used in Verdigris as an Inhibitor in Persian Miniature Paintings." Restaurator 23/iii (2002): 154-164.

Barkeshli, Mandana, Ghasem Ataie, and Mahmood Alimohammadi. "Historical Analysis of Materials Used in Iranian Paper Dyeing With Special Reference to the Effect of Henna Dye on Paper Based on Scientific Analysis." ICOM Committee for Conservation, 15th Triennial Conference, New Dehli, 22-26 September 2008, preprints vol.1 (2008): 255-263.

Barkeshli, Mandana. "Paint Palette Used by Iranian Masters based on Persian Medieval Recipes." Restaurator 34, 2 (2013): 101-133.

Bell, Ian M., Robin J.H. Clark, and Peter J. Gibbs. "Raman Spectroscopic Library of Natural and Synthetic Pigments (pre- ~1850 AD)." Spectrochimica Acta Part A 53 (1997): 2159-2179.

Biddle, Michaelle. "Inks in the Islamic Manuscripts of Northern Nigeria: Old Recipes, Modern Analysis and Medicine." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 2, 1 (2011):1-35.

Bruni, Silvia, Franco Cariati, Francesca Casadio, and Vittoria Guglielmi. "Micro-Raman identification of the palette of a precious XVI century illuminated Persian codex." Journal of Cultural Heritage 2, 4 (October–December 2001): 291–296.

Burgio, Lucia, Robin J.H. Clark, Vania S.F. Muralha, and Tim Stanley. "Pigment analysis by Raman microscopy of the non-figurative illumination in 16th- to 18th-century Islamic manuscripts." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 39, 10 (2008): 1482–1493.

Chabbouh, Ibrahim. "Two New Sources on the Art of Mixing Ink." In The Codicology of Islamic Manuscripts In The Codicology of Islamic Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 4-5 December 1993, Ed. Yasin Dutton (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1995): 59-76. 

Ciomartin, Dan A. and Robin J.H. Clark. "Raman microscopy applied to the analysis of the pigments used in two Persian manuscripts." Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 7, 6 (1996): 395-402.

Clark, Robin J.H. and Sigrid Mirabaud. "Identification of the pigments on a sixteenth century Persian book of poetry by Raman microscopy." Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 37, 1-3 (2006): 235-239.  

Clark, Robin J.H. and Peter J. Gibbs. "Analysis of 16th Century Qazwīnī Manuscripts by Raman Microscopy and Remote Laser Raman Microscopy." Journal of Archaeological Science 25, 7 (July 1998): 621–629.

Clarke, Mark. "The Analysis of Medieval European Manuscripts." Reviews in Conservation 2 [= Studies in Conservation 46, Supplement 1] (2001): 3-17.

Ebeid, Hassan, et al. "A Study of Dyed Endpapers during Islamic Mediaeval Times in Egypt: Purpose, Materials and Techniques." Paper Conservation: Decisions and Compromises. Extended Abstracts - Interim Meeting Graphic Document Working Group - Vienna April 2013, eds. Lieve Watteeuw and Christa Hofmann (ICOM-CC, 2013): 61-65. Accessed 8 May 2013, http://www.icom-cc.org/54/document/paper-conservation-decisions--compromises--extended-abstracts--interim-meeting-graphic-document-working-group--vienna-april-2013/?id=1185.

Espejo Arias, Teresa, et al. "A Study about Colourants in the Arabic Manuscript Collection of the Sacromonte Abbey, Granada, Spain: A New Methodology for Chemical Analysis." Restaurator 29, 2 (August 2008): 76–106.

Farooqi, Anis. “Pigments and Materials Used in Indian and Persian Miniatures.” Islamic Culture 51/i (1977): 11-19.

Hayez, V., S. Denoël, Z. Genadry, and B. Gilbert. "Identification of pigments on a 16th century Persian manuscript by micro-Raman spectroscopy.Journal of Raman Spectroscopy 35, 8-9 Special Issue: Raman spectroscopy in Art and Archaeology (August-September 2004): 781–785.

"Instruments and Preparations Used in Book Production.” In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006): 103-157.

Kakuee, Omidreza, et al. "External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book." Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 273 (2012): 178-181.

Levey, Martin. Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and Its Relation to Early Chemistry and Pharmacology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series volume 52, part 4. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1962.

Muralha, Vania S.F., Lucia Burgio, and Robin J.H. Clark. "Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigments on 16–17th c. Persian manuscripts." Spectrochimica Acta Part A 92 (15 June 2012): 21–28.

Porter, Cheryl. "The Science of Color: Color Analysis and the Roles of Economics, Geography, and Tradition in the Artist's Choice of Colors for Manuscript Painting." In And Diverse are Their Hues: Color in Islamic Art and Culture, Eds. Jonathan Bloom and Sheila Blair (New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 2011): 205-221.

Ragetti, Lucia. "Cum grano salis. Some Arabic Ink Recipes in Their Historical and Literary Context." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 7, 3 (2016): 294 – 338

Ricciardi, Paola, Anuradha Pallipurath and Kristine Rose. "'It's Not Easy Being Green': A Spectroscopic Study of Green Pigments Used in Illuminated Manuscripts." Analytical Methods 5, 16 (2013): 3819-3824.

Sloggett, Robyn. “Raman Analysis of Pigments Found in Middle Eastern Manuscripts in the University of Melbourne Collection.” In Contributions to the Symposium on the Care and Conservation of Middle Eastern manuscripts. The University of Melbourne, Australia, 26-28 November 2007, ed. Robyn Sloggett. (Melbourne: Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, 2008): 89-99

Thackston, Wheeler M. "Treatise on Calligraphic Arts: A Disquisition on Paper, Colors, Inks, and Pens by Simi of Nishapur." In Intellectual Studies on Islam: Essays Written in Honor of Martin B.Dickson, Professor of Persian Studies, Princeton University, ed. Michel M.Mazzaoui and Vera B.Moreen (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990): 219-228.

Zaki, Mahmoud. "Early Arabic Bookmaking Techniques as Described by al-Rāzī in His Recently Rediscovered Zīnat al-Katabah." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 2 (2011): 223-234.

Layout (mise en page)

see also "IV. 2. Page lay-out (mise en page)" in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)


Daub, Frederike-Wiebke. "Standards and Specifics – the Layout of Arabic Didactic Poems in Manuscripts." manuscript cultures : newsletter no.5 (2012/2013): 52-67

______. Formen und Funktionen des Layouts in arabischen Manuskripten anhand von Abschriften religiöser Texte al-Būṣīrīs Burda, al-Ǧazūlīs Dalāʼil und die Šifāʼ von Qāḍī ʻIyāḍ. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016.   

Guesdon, Marie-Geneviève. "Les pages de titre dans des manuscrits arabes dans les manuscrits arabes datés antérieurs à 1500." In Writings and Writing : Investigations in Islamic Text and Script in Honour of Dr. Januarius Justus Witkam, Ed. Robert M. Kerr and Thomas Milo (Cambridge: Archetype, 2013): 197-211

Polosin, Val. V. "Arabic Manuscripts: Text Density and its Convertibility in Copies of the Same Work." Manuscripta Orientalia 3, 2 (1997): 3-17.

______. "All is Numbers? An Unknown Numerical Component in the Design of Medieval Arabic Manuscripts."  Manuscripta Orientalia 5,1 (1999): 7-11.

Porter, Yves. "La réglure (mastar): de la "formule d'atelier" aux jeux de l'esprit." Studia Islamica, 96, Écriture, Calligraphie et Peinture (2003): 55-56+X-XVII+57-74.

"Ruling and Page Layout." In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in the Arabic Script (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006): 159-184.

Stanley, Tim. "Page-setting in Late Ottoman Qur'ans. An Aspect of Standardization." Manuscripta Orientalia 10, 1 (2004): 56-63.

Vernay-Nouri, Annie. "Marges, gloses et décor dans une série de manuscrits arabo-islamiques." Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée [en ligne], 99-100 | novembre 2002, posted 12 mai 2009, http://remmm.revues.org/1178

Witkam, Jan Just."Twenty-nine Rules for Qur'ān Copying. A Set of Rules for the Lay-out of a Nineteenth-century Ottoman Qur'ān Manuscript." In Essays in honour of Barbara Flemming vol. 2, Ed. Jan Schmidt = Journal of Turkish Studies, 26, ii (2002): 339-348.

Painting and Illumination

see "VII. 3. Ornament and painted decoration" and "VII. 4 Painted illustration." in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)


Akimushkin, Oleg F. and Anatol A. Ivanov. "The Art of Illumination." In The Arts of the Book in Central Asia, 14th-16th Centuries, Ed. Basil Gray (Paris: UNESCO; London: Serindia, 1979): 35-57.

Atasoy, Nurhan and Filiz Çağman. Turkish Miniature Painting. Istanbul : R. C. D. Cultural Institute, 1974.

Brosh, Na’ama and Rachel Milstein. Biblical Stories in Islamic Painting. Jerusalem : Israel Museum, c1991.

Canby, Sheila, Ed. Persian Masters: Five Centuries of Painting. Bombay : Marg Publications, c1990

Canby, Sheila. Persian Painting. New York : Thames and Hudson, 1993.

_____. "Safavid Painting." In Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran 1501-1576, Ed. Jon Thompson and Sheila R. Canby (Milano: Skira, 2003): 72-133.

_____. "Safavid Illumination." In Hunt for Paradise: Court Arts of Safavid Iran 1501-1576, Ed. Jon Thompson and Sheila R. Canby (Milano: Skira, 2003): 134-153.

_____. "Painting in the Margins of Persian Manuscript Illustrations." Manuscripta Orientalia 9, 4 (2003): 53-60. 

Contadini, Anna, Ed. Arab Painting: Text and Image in Illustrated Arabic Manuscripts. Leiden: Brill, 2007.

Déroche, François and Marianna Shreve Simpson. "Islamic art, III, 3. Painted decoration." The Dictionary of Art, Ed. Jane Turner (New York: Grove’s Dictionaries,1996-): 16, 288-293.

Grabar, Oleg. Mostly Miniatures: An Introduction to Persian Painting. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c2000.

Golombek, Lisa. "Toward a Classification of Islamic Painting." In Islamic Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Ed. Richard Ettinghausen (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972): 23-34.

Hoffman, Eva R. "The Beginnings of the Illustrated Arabic Book: An Intersection Between Art and Scholarship." Muqarnas 17, (2000): 37-52

Milstein, Rachel. Miniature Painting in Ottoman Baghdad. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1990.

Milstein, Rachel, Karin Rührdanz and Barbara Schmitz. Stories of the Prophets: Illustrated Manuscripts of Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyā ̓. Costa Mesa, Calif. : Mazda Publishers, 1999.

Polosin, Val. V. "Unwan Illuminations in Arabic Manuscripts (Part 1)." Manuscripta Orientalia 8, 2 (June 2002): 12-19.

Porter, Yves. Painters, Paintings and Books: An Essay on Indo-Persian Technical Literature, 12-19th Centuries. trans. by S. Butani. New Delhi: Manohar, 1994.

Richard, Francis. Splendeurs persanes: manuscrits du XIIe au XVIIe siècle. Paris : Bibliothèque nationale de France, c1997.

_____. Le livre persan. [Paris]: Bibliothèque nationale de France, c2003.

Robinson, Basil W. et al. Islamic painting and the arts of the book. London: Faber and Faber,1976.

Roxburgh, David. "The Study of Painting and the Arts of the Book." Muqarnas 17, (2000): 1-16.

_____. Prefacing the Image: The Writing of Art History in Sixteenth-Century Iran. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

Rührdanz, Karin. Türkische Miniaturmalerei. Leipzig : Seemann, c1988.

Simpson, Marianna Shreve. The Illustration of an Epic: The Earliest Shahnama Manuscripts. New York : Garland Pub., 1979.

_____. "Manuscript Illumination, Islamic." Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Ed. Joseph R. Strayer (New York: Scribner, 1982-89): 8, 112-118.

_____. Persian Poetry, Painting & Patronage: Illustrations in a Sixteenth-century Masterpiece. Washington, D.C.: Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution ; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Tanındı, Zeren. "Manuscript Production in the Ottoman Palace Workshop." Manuscripts of the Middle East 5, (1990-1991): 67-98.

_____. "Gilding and Binding in the Muslim World." In Arts and Crafts in the Muslim World. Proceedings of the International Congress on Islamic Arts and Crafts, Isfahan, 04-09 October, 2002, Ed. Nazeih Taleb Maarouf and Semiramis Çavuşoğlu (Istanbul, 2008): 397-412.

Titley, Nora M. Miniatures from Turkish Manuscripts: A Catalogue and Subject Index of Paintings in the British Library and British Museum. London : British Library, c1981.

Waley, Muhammad Isa. "Illumination and its Function in Islamic Manuscripts." In Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient, Eds. François Déroche and Francis Richard (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 1997): 87-112.

Witkam, Jan Just. "The Battle of the Images: Mekka vs. Medina in the Iconography of the Manuscripts of al-Jazūlī’s Dalāʼil al-Khayrāt." In Theoretical approaches to the transmission and edition of Oriental manuscripts. Proceedings of a symposium held in Istanbul, March 28-30, 2001, Eds. Judith Pfeiffer and Manfred Kropp (Beirut: Ergon verlag Würzburg in Kommission, 2007): 67-82 and 295-300 (illus.)

Wright, Elaine. The Look of the Book: Manuscript Production in Shiraz, 1303-1452. Washington, D.C. : Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution ; Seattle : University of Washington Press, 2012.

Papers and Papermaking

see also

Bavavéas, Marie-Thérèse. Les papiers non filigranés médiévaux de la Perse à l’Espagne : Bibliographie 1950–1995. Paris: CNRS Éditions, 1998.

Gacek, Adam. "II. 4. Paper" In The Arabic Manuscript Tradition: A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography (Leiden: Brill, 2001): 198-204.

-------. "II. 4. Paper" In The Arabic Manuscript Tradition: A Glossary of Technical Terms and Bibliography - Supplement (Leiden: Brill, 2008): 118-120.

Hepworth, Paul. Bibliography on Islamic Papers, Book Structures, Pigments and their Conservation. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ConservationBibliographies.html                                

Jacobs, David. Islamic Bibliography [Bookbinding, Conservation, Paper, Painting, Calligraphy and Qurans, History]. Available online at http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/extresources/bibliographies/ArtsOfTheBook.pdf

Kropf, Evyn. "Resources for the Study of Watermarks" Islamic Manuscript Resources, 5 September 2012, formerly at http://mblog.lib.umich.edu/islamicmsstudies/archives/2012/09/online_resource.html now at http://islamicmss.blogspot.com/2013/12/watermarks.html


Afshār, Īraj. "The Use of Paper in Islamic Manuscripts as Documented in Classical Persian Texts." In The Codicology of Islamic Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 4-5 December 1993, Yasin Dutton, ed. (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1995), 77-91.

———. "Manuscript and Paper Sizes Cited in Persian and Arabic Texts." In Essays in Honour of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Munajjid / Maqālāt wa-dirāsāt muhdāh ilá al-Duktūr Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Munajjid, (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2002), 659-673.

———. Kāghaẕ dar zindagī va farhang-i Īrānī. Tihrān, Mīrās̲-i Maktūb, 2011.

Agrawal, O.P. and Mandana Barkeshli. "Methods of Analysis." In Conservation of Books, Manuscripts, and Paper Documents (Lucknow: Indian Council of Conservation Institute (INTACH), 1997), 275-277.

Amar, Zohar. "The History of the Paper Industry in al-Sham in the Middle Ages." In Towns and Material Culture in the Medieval Middle East, Yaacov Lev, ed. (Leiden: Brill, 2002), 119-133.

———, Azriel Gorski, and Izhar Neumann. "The paper and textile industry in the Land of Israel and its raw materials in light of an analysis of the Cairo Genizah documents." In "From a sacred source": Genizah studies in honour of Professor Stefan C.Reif, Ed. Ben Outhwaite and Siam Bhayro, (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2010): 25-42.

Ammadi, Mostafa. "El papel en las fuentes árabes: textos y datos magrebíes." In Manuscritos místicos: formas y contenidos, Ed. Mostafa Ammadi (Aïn Chock (Casablanca): Faculté des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines, Université Hassan II, 2010): 175-180.

ʻAtīqī, Mahdī. "Problems Relating to the Treatment of Islamic Manuscripts: Paper.: In The Conservation and Preservation of Islamic Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Third Conference of Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 18th–19th November 1995, Yusuf Ibish and George Atiyeh, eds. (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 1996), 151-156.

ʻAwwād, Kurkīs. "al-Waraq aw al-kāghid." Majallat al-Majmaʻ al-ʻIlmī al-ʻArabī XXIII (1948): 409-38. 

Babinger, Franz. Zur Geschichte der Papiererzeugung im Osmanischen Reiche. Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1931.

———. “Papierhandel und Papierbereitung in der Levante.” Wochenblatt für Papierfabrikation LXII, no. 52 (1931): 1215-1219.

Baker, Don. "A Note on the Expression…'A Manuscript on Oriental Paper.'" Manuscripts of the Middle East 4 (1989): 67–68.

———. "Arab Papermaking." The Paper Conservator 15 (1991): 28–35.

Barkeshli, Mandana. "Historical and Scientific Analysis on Sizing Materials Used in Iranian Manuscripts and Miniature Paintings." The Book and Paper Group Annual 22 (2003): 9–16.

———. "Historical and Scientific Analysis of Iranian Illuminated Manuscripts and Miniature Paintings." In Contributions to the Symposium on the Care and Conservation of Middle Eastern Manuscripts. The University of Melbourne, Australia, 26–28 November 2007, Robyn Sloggett, ed. (Melbourne: Centre for Cultural Materials Conservation, 2008), 74-78.

Barkeshli, Mandana, Ghasem Ataie, and Mahmood Alimohammadi. "Historical Analysis of Materials Used in Iranian Paper Dyeing With Special Reference to the Effect of Henna Dye on Paper Based on Scientific Analysis." ICOM Committee for Conservation, 15th Triennial Conference, New Dehli, 22-26 September 200, preprints vol.1 (2008): 255-263.

Barrett, Timothy and Cythnia Mosier. "A review of methods for the identification of sizing agents in paper." In Manchester 1992: [Papers Presented to the Third International Institute of Paper Conservation Conference at the University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, 1st - 4th April 1992] Ed. Sheila Fairbass ([London]: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1992): 207-213.

Barrett, Timothy, Katharina Siedler, and Mary Louise Sullivan. "Islamic-Style Papermaking in the Classroom." Hand Papermaking 27, 2 (Winter 2012): 24-29.

Bavavéas, Marie-Thérèse and Geneviève Humbert. "Une méthode de description du papier non filigrané (dit ‘oriental’)." Gazette du Livre Médiéval 17 (1990): 24–30.

———. "Zigzag et filigrane sont-ils incompatibles? Enquête dans les manuscrits de la Bibliothèque nationale de France." In Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques, ed. Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999): 119-133.

Baydar, Nil. "Structural Features and Conservation Problems of Turkish Manuscripts and Suggestions for Solutions." In Works of Art on Paper: Books, Documents and Photographs: Techniques and Conservation. Contributions to the Baltimore Congress 2-6 September 2002.  Vincent Daniels, Alan Donnithorne and Perry Smith, eds. (London: International Institute for Conservation, 2002), 5-10.

Beit-Arié, Malachi. "The Oriental Arabic Paper." Gazette du Livre Médiéval 28 (1996): 9–12.

———. "Quantitative Typology of Oriental Paper Patterns." In Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques, Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda, ed. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999), 41-53.

Bicchieri, Marina. “Paper.” In Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage: An Introduction to the Application of Materials Science to Archaeometry and Conservation Science, Ed. Gilberto Artioli (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010): 384-395.

Blair, Sheila S. "Color and gold: the decorated papers used in manuscripts in later Islamic times." Muqarnas 17, (2000): 24-36.

Bloom, Jonathan M. Paper Before Print: the History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001.

———. "The Paper Trail." Ḥadīth Al-Dār / Hadeeth Ad-Dar: The Journal of Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah 24 (2007): 5–8.

Boud'hors, Anne. "Manuscrits coptes de papier (XIe-XIVe siècle): quelques éléments de caractérisation." In Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques, ed. Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999): 75-84.

Bosch, Gulnar, John Carswell, and Guy Petherbridge. Islamic Bindings and Bookmaking: a Catalogue of an Exhibition, The Oriental Institute, The University of Chicago, May 18-August 18, 1981. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Bréjoux, Jacques. "Le papier arabe ou papier islamique FABRICATION DE FACSIMILE DE PAPIER ARABO-ANDALOUS du XIIème au XVème siècle."  Le Moulin du Verger >> Le Papier >> Expérimentations. December 2001. http://www.moulinduverger.com/papier-main/article-8.php

Briquet, Charles-Moïse. "Recherches sur les premiers papiers employés en Occident et en Orient du Xe au XIVe siècle." Memoires de la Société Nationale des Antiquaires des France, xlvi. Paris: La Société, 1886.

———. "Le papier Arabe au moyen âge et sa fabrication." In Briquet’s Opuscula, E.J. Labarre, ed. (Hilversum: Paper Publications Society, 1955), 162-169.

Canart, Paul, et al. "Une enquête sur le papier de type "arabe occidental" ou "espagnol non filigrané." In Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques (Erice, 18–25 September 1992). Studi e Testi 357-358. Marilena Maniaci and Paola F. Munafo, eds. (Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1993), vol. I 313-393.

D'Ottone, Arianna. "La carta in Yemen: osservazioni sulle provenienze e i materiali." Gazette du livre médiéval 45, (2004): 56-58. I

———. "La produzione ed il consumo della carta in Yemen (secoli VI-IX H. / A.D. XII-XV). Primi risultati di una ricerca quantitativa." Gazette du livre médiéval 44, (2004): 39-49.

———. I manoscritti arabi dello Yemen: una ricerca codicologica. Rome: Nuova Cultura & Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", Facoltà di Studi Orientali, 2006.

———. "Les manuscrits arabes du Yémen (VIe-IXe/XIIe-XVe siècles)." Chroniques yéménites 11 | 2003 (posted online 10 septembre 2007) http://cy.revues.org/169

Duffy, Christina. "The Discovery of a Watermark on the St Cuthbert Gospel using Colour Space Analysis." Electronic British Library Journal 2014 (available online at http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2014articles/article2.html and http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2014articles/pdf/ebljarticle22014.pdf)

Ebeid, Hassan, et al. "A Study of Dyed Endpapers during Islamic Mediaeval Times in Egypt: Purpose, Materials and Techniques." Paper Conservation: Decisions and Compromises. Extended Abstracts - Interim Meeting Graphic Document Working Group - Vienna April 2013, eds. Lieve Watteeuw and Christa Hofmann (ICOM-CC, 2013): 61-65. Accessed 8 May 2013, http://www.icom-cc.org/54/document/paper-conservation-decisions--compromises--extended-abstracts--interim-meeting-graphic-document-working-group--vienna-april-2013/?id=1185.

Efthymiou, Marie. "Le papier." In Marie Efthymiou, L'art du livre en Asie centrale de la fin du XVIe siècle au début du XXe siècle: Étude des manuscrits coraniques de l'Institut d'Orientalisme Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī (Leiden: Brill, 2014): 5-40

Ersoy, Osman. XVIII. ve XIX. Yüzyıllarda Türkiye’de Kâğıt. [Ankara]: Ankara Üniversitesi Basimevi, 1963.

Espejo Arias, Teresa, et al. "A Study about Colourants in the Arabic Manuscript Collection of the Sacromonte Abbey, Granada, Spain: A New Methodology for Chemical Analysis." Restaurator 29, 2 (August 2008): 76–106.

-----, et al. "Microscopic and Spectroscopic Techniques for the Study of Paper Supports and Textile Used in the Binding of Hispano-Arabic Manuscripts from al-Andalus: A Transition Model in the 15th Century." Journal of Cultural Heritage 11, 1 (2010): 50–58.

Estève, Jean-Louis. "Le zigzag dans les papiers arabes. Essai d'explication." Gazette du livre médiéval 38, (2001): 40-49.

———.  "Observations sur la disposition des vergures dans les papiers arabo-andalous." Gazette du livre médiéval 39, (2001): 48-50.

———. "Zigzag ou vergeures "raboutées"? Le cas du ms. Persan 126 de la Bibliothèque nationale de France." Gazette du livre médiéval 42, (2003): 47-50.

———. "Les vergures "claires-obscures" des papiers arabes: proposition d'explication." Gazette du livre médiéval 45 (2004): 58-63.

Floor, Willem. "Paper and Papermaking." Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2005, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/paper-and-papermaking 

Gacek, Adam. "On the Making of Local Paper. A Thirteenth Century Yemeni Recipe." Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée 99–100 (2002): 79–93.

González Castrillo, R. "Referencias al papel en fuentes árabes medievales." Anaquel de estudios arabes 9 (1998): 41-44.

Güleç, İsmail. "Osmanlılarda kâğıt ve kağıtçılık." Müteferrika 2 (1994): 85-94.

Habibullaev, N. "History of Paper Production in Central Asia." International Journal Of Central Asian Studies 10, (2005): 85-98.

Halevi, Leor. "Christian Impurity versus Economic Necessity: A Fifteenth-Century Fatwa on European Paper." Speculum 83, 4 (2008): 917-945.

Hand Papermaking, Volume 27, Number2, Winter 2012

Paper in the Islamic Lands by Jonathan Bloom (pp.3-11); An Introduction to the Craft of the Islamic Papermaker by Helen Loveday (pp.12-16); Casting Light on the Surface, Scientific Exactitude Meets Poetic Inspiration: A Close Look at Six Objects from the Islamic Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art by Yana Van Dyke (pp.17-23); Islamic-Style Papermaking in the Classroom by Timothy Barrett, Katharina Siedler, and Mary Louise Sullivan (pp.24-29); Saffron-Dyed Islamic-Style Paper sample by Katharina Siedler (p.30); Recreating an Islamic Codex by Islam Aly (pp.31-33); Istanbul Finds Its Center by Margaret Mahan (pp.34-35); Indian Papermaking: Mapping the DNA by Alexandra Soteriou (pp.36-38); The Continuing Kagzi Tradition of India by Radha Pandey (pp.39-41); Indigo-Dyed and Madder-Dyed Sunn Hemp Paper samples by Zakir Hussain Kagzi (p.42); Reconciling Tradition and Contemporary Practice in Present-Day Miniature Painting in Pakistan by Murad Khan Mumtaz (pp.43-47).

Hannawi, Abdul Ahad. "The Role of the Arabs in the Introduction of Paper into Europe." MELA Notes 85 (2012): 14-29.

Hidalgo Brinquis, María del Carmen. "Spanish Watermarks of 14th and 15th Centuries: The Great Unknown." In Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques, Ed. Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999): 203-214.

———.  "El papel de los manuscritos árabes e hispanoárabes: características materiales." In Los manuscritos árabes en España y Marruecos: homenaje de Granada y Fez a Ibn Jaldún. Actas del Congreso Internacional, Granada 2005, ed. Mª J.Viguera and C.Castillo. (Granada: Fundación El Legado Andalusí, 2006): 289-301.

———. "Características del papel de los manuscritos hispano-árabes." In Colecciones madrileñas. Transmisiones moriscas. Actas: Jornadas sobre manuscritos árabes, ed. N.Martínez de Castilla, J.L.Garrot, A.I.Beneyto and M.J.Viguera (Madrid: Publicaciones Universidad Complutense, 2008): 171-182.

Humbert, Geneviève. "Papiers non filigranés utilisé au Proche-Orient jusqu’en 1450: Essai de typologie." Journal Asiatique 286, 1 (1998): 1–54.

———. "Un papier fabriqué vers 1350 en Égypte." In Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques, Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda, ed. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999), 61-73.

———. "Le manuscrit arabe et ses papiers." Revue des mondes musulmans et de la méditerranée 99–100 (2002): 55–77.

———  and Annie Vernay-Nouri. "De quelques corans chinois et leur papier." Mélanges de l'université Saint-Joseph 59, (2006): 253-267.

Husain, Sabah. "The Art and Craft of Papermaking." In Arts and crafts in the Muslim world. Proceedings of the International Congress on Islamic Arts and Crafts, Isfahan, 04-09 October, 2002, ed. Nazeih Taleb Maarouf and Semiramis Çavuşoğlu (Istanbul: IRCICA, 2008): 429-438.

Ibn Bādīs, al-Muʻizz. "ʻUmdat al-kuttāb wa-ʻuddat dhawī al-albāb." Ed. ʻAbd al-Sattār al-Ḥalwajī and ʻAlī ʻAbd al-Muḥsin Zakī. Majallat Maʻhad al-Makhṭūṭāt al-ʻArabīyah 17 (1971): 43-172.

-----. ʻUmdat al-kuttāb wa-ʻuddat dhawī al-albāb. Iyād Khālid al-Ṭabbāʻ, ed. Dimashq: Wizārat al-Thaqāfah fī al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah al-Sūrīyah, 2007.

Irigoin, Jean. "Les types des formes utilisés dans l'Orient méditerranéen (Syrie, Égypte) du XIe au XIVe siècle." Papiergeschichte 13 (1963): 18-21.

———. "Papiers orientaux et papiers occidentaux." In La paléographie grecque et byzantine: Paris, 21-25 octobre, 1974. (Paris: Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS], 1977), 45-54.

———. "Les papiers non filigranés: état présent des recherches et perspectives d’avenir." In Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques (Erice, 18–25 September 1992). Studi e Testi 357-358. Marilena Maniaci and Paola F. Munafo, eds. (Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1993), vol. I 265-315.

Jones, Russell. " European and Asian papers in Malay manuscripts. A provisional assessment.Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 149:3 (1993): 474-502.

Kâgitçi, Mehmed Ali. Kağıtçılık Tarihçesi. İstanbul: Kader Basımevi, 1936.

———. “Beitrag zur türkischen Papiergeschichte.” Papiergeschichte, 13/4 (1963): 37-44.

———. “A Brief History of Papermaking in Turkey.” The Paper Maker, 34 (1965): 41-51.

———. Historical Study of Paper Industry in Turkey [= Historique de l’industrie papetière en Turquie]. [Istanbul], 1976.

Karabacek, Joseph von. "Das Arabische Papier." Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer 3-4 (Wien: Verlag der K. K. Hof- und staatsdruckerei, 1887), 87-178.

———. Arab Paper. Transl. by Don Baker and Suzy Dittmar with additional notes by Don Baker. London: The Don Baker Memorial Fund/Archetype Publications, 2001.

Kropf, Evyn and Cathleen A. Baker. "A Conservative Tradition? Arab Papers of the 12th-17th Centuries from the Islamic Manuscripts Collection at the University of Michigan." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 4, 1 (2013): 1-48.

Kropf, Evyn. "Resources for the Study of Watermarks" Islamic Manuscript Studies, 5 September 2012, formerly at http://mblog.lib.umich.edu/islamicmsstudies/archives/2012/09/online_resource.html now at http://islamicmss.blogspot.com/2013/12/watermarks.html

Le Léannuc-Bavavéas, Marie-Thérèse. "À propos du « zigzag »." Gazette du livre médiéval 39, (2001): 50-51.

Levey, Martin. Mediaeval Arabic Bookmaking and Its Relation to Early Chemistry and Pharmacology. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 52, 4. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1962.

Love, Paul. "Ibāḍī Manuscripts at the Bibliothèque nationale de Tunisie: Descriptions, Watermarks, and Implications." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 7,1 (2016): 1-35.

Loveday, Helen. Islamic Paper: A Study of the Ancient Craft. London : The Don Baker Memorial Fund, 2001.

———. “A Comparative Study of Safavid Paper.” In Safavid Art and Architecture, Sheila R. Canby, ed. (London: The British Museum Press, 2002), 107-111.

———. “The Practice of Sizing in Middle-Eastern Paper Manufacture and its Relation to the Conservation of Islamic Manuscripts.” Abstract of a paper presented at the Fourth Islamic Manuscript Conference, 6-9 July 2008, Queens’ College, University of Cambridge.  http://www.islamicmanuscript.org/files/LOVEDAY_Helen_2008_TIMA_abstract.pdf

Lydon, Ghislaine. "A Thirst for Knowledge: Arabic Literacy, Writing Paper and Saharan Bibliophiles in the Southwestern Sahara." In The Trans-Saharan Book Trade: Manuscript Culture, Arabic Literacy and Intellectual History in Muslim Africa, Ed. Graziano Krätli, Ghislaine Lydon (Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2011): 35-72.

Mahgoub, Hend et al. "Material properties of Islamic paper." Heritage Science 4:34 (December 2016): 1-14

al-Manūnī, Muḥammad. "al-Wirāqah al-Maghribīyah." al-Baḥth al-ʻilmī 15 (1970): 37-65 ; 18 (1971): 17-49

———. Tārīkh al-wirāqah al-Maghribīyah: ṣināʻat al-makhṭūṭ al-Maghribī min al-ʻaṣr al-wasīṭ ilá al-fatrah al-muʻāṣirah. al-Rabāṭ, 1991. (esp. p.21, 33-34, 104)

Morozov, D.A. "An ancient Russian manuscript on Central Asian paper." Manuscripta Orientalia 6, ii (2000): 17-19.

Musʻad, Sāmiyah Muṣṭafá. al-Wirāqah wa-al-warrāqūn fī al-Andalus min ʻaṣr al-khilāfah ḥattá nihāyat ʻaṣr al-muwaḥḥidīn. [Cairo]: ʻAyn lil-Dirāsāt wa-al-Buḥūth al-Insānīyah wa-al-Ijtimāʻīyah, 2000.

Naqshabandī, Usāmah Nāṣir. "Istikhdām al-waraq wa-ṣināʻatuh fī al-ḥaḍārah al-ʻArabīyah al-Islāmīyah." Turāthīāt 12 (July 2008): 59-68.

Nikolaev, Vsevolod. Watermarks of the Mediaeval Ottoman Documents in Bulgarian Libraries, Watermarks of the Ottoman Empire, volume 1. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1954.

Orsatti, Paola. "Le manuscrit islamique: Caracteristiques materielles et typologie." In Ancient and Medieval Book Materials and Techniques (Erice, 18–25 September 1992). Studi e Testi 357-358. Marilena Maniaci and Paola F. Munafo, eds. (Città del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1993), 269-332.

Özen, Mine Esiner. "Kağıt filigranları ve Dr Emel Esin Kütüphanesi Yazmalarından Örnekler." Festschrift in Honor of Günay Kut  = Journal of Turkish Studies v.27 / II (2003): 133-152.

Porter, Yves. Painters, Paintings, and Books: An Essay on Indo-Persian Technical Literature, 12-19th centuries. trans. S. Butani. New Dehli: Manohar Centre for Human Sciences, 1994.

———. "Notes sur la fabrication du papier dans le monde iranien médiéval (VIIIe - XVIe siècle)." In Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques, ed. Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999): 19-30.

Premchand, Neeta. Off the Deckle Edge : A Paper-making Journey Through India. Bombay, India : The Ankur Project, 1995.

Quraishi, Salim. "A Survey of the Development of Papermaking in Islamic Countries." Bookbinder: Journal of the Society of Bookbinders and Book Restorers 3 (1989): 29–36.

——— (Qureshi, Salimuddin). "Paper Making in Islamic Countries." Pakistan Library Bulletin 21, 2 (1990): 1–11.

Regourd, Anne. "Papiers filigranés de manuscrits de Zabid, premier tiers du XVIIIe-milieu du XXe siècle: papiers importés et «locaux»." In The Yemeni Manuscript Tradition, Eds. David Hollenberg, Christoph Rauch, and Sabine Schmidtke (Leiden: Brill, 2015): Forthcoming

———. "Les routes commerciales entre Zabîd et l’Europe : les papiers filigranés de fonds manuscrits de Zabîd (Yémen, fin 18e-milieu 20e s.)." In Convegno Storia e cultura dello Yemen in età islamica con particolare riferimento al periodo rasûlide (Roma, 30-31 octobre 2003), Ed. R. Traini (Rome: Bardi ed., 2006): 173-198 + 8 fig. PDF : RegourdA_Filigrane-Zabid.pdf

———. "Trade on the Red Sea during the Ayyubide and the Mamluk period: The Quseir paper manuscript collection 1999-2003, first data." Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies 34, Papers from the thirty-seventh meeting of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held in London, 17-19 July 2003 (2004), 277-292 + 15 fig.

———. "Filigranes de Zabîd : les liens commerciaux de la ville avec Venise et l’Empire ottoman aux XVIIe-XXe s." In Zabîd wa-ittisâlâtuhâ al-‘ilmiyya bi-al-‘âlam al-‘arabî wa-al-islâmî Proceedings of the 1st Conference in al-Hudayda (14-17 déc. 2002), (al-Hudayda: University of al-Hudayda, 2002): v.1, 101-112.

Richard, Francis. "Le papier utilisé dans les manuscrits persans du XVe siècle de la Bibliothèque nationale de France." In Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques. Ed. Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999): 31-40.

———. "Une recette en persan pour colorer le papier." Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée 99-100 (2002): 95-100.

———. "The Writing Surface: Paper." In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script. (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006), 49-63.

Rischel, Anna-Grethe. "Natural Plant Sizing Agents in Oriental Papers and the Importance of Re-sizing Such Papers After Washing." In Manchester 1992: [Papers Presented to the Third International Institute of Paper Conservation Conference at the University of Manchester, Institute of Science and Technology, 1st–4th April 1992], Sheila Fairbass, ed. (London: Institute of Paper Conservation, 1992), 222-227.

———. "Through the Microscope Lens: Classification of Oriental Paper Technology and Fibres." In Looking at Paper: Evidence & Interpretation: Symposium Proceedings, Toronto 1999 (Ottawa: Canadian Conservation Institute, 2001), 179-188.

———. "Permanence and Durability of Paper: A Study Through the Microscope." Journal of Paper Conservation : IADA reports = Mitteilungen der IADA 10, no. 2 (2009): 25–30.

Roxburgh, David J. "Persian Drawing, ca. 1400-1450: Materials and Creative Procedures." Muqarnas 19 (2002): 44-77.

Sabat, Khalil. "Taṭawwur ṣināʻat al-waraq fī Miṣr." Majallat Kullīyāt al-Ādāb (Cairo) 19, 1 (1957): 245–261.

Sistach, Carmen. "Les papiers non filigranés dans les archives de la Couronne d'Aragon du XIIe au XIVe siècle." In  Le papier au Moyen Âge: histoire et techniques. Ed. Monique Zerdoun Bat-Yehouda. (Turnhout: Brepols, 1999): 105-117.

Soteriou, Alexandra. Gift of Conquerors : Hand Papermaking in India. Middletown, NJ : Grantha Corporation ; Chidanbaram, Ahmedabad, India : Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., 1999.

———. "A Heritage of Papermaking: A Gift to Today's Artisan." In Arts and Crafts in the Muslim World. Proceedings of the International Congress on Islamic Arts and Crafts, Isfahan, 04-09 October, 2002, Eds. Nazeih Taleb Maarouf and Semiramis Çavuşoğlu (Istanbul: IRCICA, 2008): 413-420.

Tawfīq, Barwīn Badrī. "Risālatān fī ṣināʻat al-makhṭūṭ al-ʻArabī [aw fī ʻamal al-kāghad al-baladī]." al-Mawrid 14, 4 (1985): 275–286.

Tekin, Şinasi. Eski Türklerde Yazı, Kâğıt, Kitap ve Kâğıt Damgaları. İstanbul: Eren, 1993.

Thackston, Wheeler M. "Treatise on Calligraphic Arts: A Disquisition on Paper, Colors, Inks, and Pens by Simi of Nishapur." In Intellectual Studies on Islam: Essays Written in Honor of Martin B.Dickson, Professor of Persian Studies, Princeton University, ed. Michel M.Mazzaoui and Vera B.Moreen (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1990): 219-228.

Thomas, Aliza. "Written Voices, Spoken Signs. Use and Spread of Paper in the Islamic World." In Geest van papier = Spirit of Paper. compiled by Peter Gentenaar. (Leiden : Uitgeverij Compres, 2004), 102-133.

Triki, Hamid. "La cuestión del papel en el Occidente musulmán en la época medieval." In Los manuscritos árabes en España y Marruecos: homenaje de Granada y Fez a Ibn Jaldún. Actas del Congreso Internacional, Granada 2005, Ed. Mª J.Viguera and C.Castillo (Granada: Junta de Andalucía & Fundación El Legado Andalusí, 2006): 285-288.

Tschudin, Peter F. "5.5  Arabische Papiermacherei." In Grundzüge der Papiergeschichte (Stuttgart : Anton Hiersemann, 2012): 90-97..

Ünver, A. Süheyl. "XV. Yüzyılda Türkiye’de Kullanılan Kâğıtlar ve Su Damgaları." Belleten 26, 104 (1962): 739-762.

Velkov, Asparouh. "Quelques materiaux de chancellerie, qui étaient en usage dans l’empire ottoman du XVI-ième jusque’au XVIII-ième siècles." Wiener Zeitschrift Für Die Kunde Des Morgenlandes 82 (1992): 421–438.

————. Les Filigranes dans les documents Ottomans: divers types d’images. Sofia: Éditions "Texte - A. Trayanov", 2005.

———— and Stephane Andreev. Filigranes dans les documents ottomans. I Trois croissants [= Водни знаци в Османотурските документи. I Три луни]. Sofia: Bibliotheque Nationale "Cyrille et Methode" Comission Archeographique Bulgare Section Orientale, 1983.

Viola, Natalia. “A propos des papiers filigranés dans les manuscrits arabes provenant de l’ Afrique de l’ Ouest.Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 6, 2-3 (2015): 351-375

Walz, Terence. "The Paper Trade of Egypt and the Sudan in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries." In Modernization in the Sudan: Essays in Honor of Richard Hill. M.W. Daly, ed. (New York: Lilian Barber, 1985), 29-48.

Wiener, Jakub, Vladimír Kovačič, and Petra Dejlová. "Differences Between Flax and Hemp." AUTEX Research Journal 3, 2 (2003): 58-63.

Wiesmüller, Beate. "Die Wasserzeichen der Refaiya Bibliothek," In Writings and Writing : Investigations in Islamic Text and Script in Honour of Dr. Januarius Justus Witkam, Ed. Robert M. Kerr and Thomas Milo (Cambridge: Archetype, 2013): 449-483. 

Wiesner, Julius von. "Mikroskopische Untersuchung der Papiere von El-Faijùm." In Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer 2-3, (Wien: Verlag der K. K. Hof- und staatsdruckerei, 1887), 45–48.

———. "Die Faijumer und Uschmuneiner Papiere." In Mittheilungen aus der Sammlung der Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer 2-3, (Wien: Verlag der K. K. Hof- und staatsdruckerei 1887), 179–260.

———. Microscopic Examination of the Faijum Papers (= Mikroskopische Untersuchung der Papiere von El-Faijùm). Transl. Gudrun Aurand. Portland, OR: The Caber Press, 1986.

Zayyāt, Ḥabīb. al-Wirāqah wa-ṣināʻat al-kitābah wa-muʻjam al-sufun. Bayrūt: Dār al-Ḥamrāʼ, 1992.

Piety and Protection

Bain, Alexandra. "The Late Ottoman ’En’am-i Şerif’: Sacred Text and Images in an Islamic Prayer Book." PhD diss., University of Victoria, 1999.

Coffey, Heather. "Between Amulet and Devotion: Islamic Miniature Books in the Lilly Library." In The Islamic Manuscript Tradition: Ten Centuries of Book Arts in Indiana University Collections, Ed. Christiane Gruber (Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 2009): 79-115.

Dawkins, J. "The Seal of Solomon." The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 2 (Oct., 1944):145-150.

Déroche, François. "Ch.11 Written Transmission." In The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an, Ed. Andrew Rippin (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006): 172-186.

Erkinov, A. "Prayer Against Fever, Connected with the Name of Khwāja Aḥmad Yasawī." Manuscripta Orientalia 10, 2 (2004): 53-56.

Gacek, Adam. "The Use of 'kabīkaj' in Arabic Manuscripts." Manuscripts of the Middle East 1 (1986): 49-53.

Gruber, Christiane. "A Pious Cure-all: The Ottoman Illustrated Prayer Manual in the Lilly Library." In The Islamic Manuscript Tradition: Ten Centuries of Book Arts in Indiana University Collections, Ed. Christiane Gruber (Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 2009): 116-153.

Savage-Smith, Emilie with contributions from Francis Maddison, Ralph Pinder-Wilson and Tim Stanley. "Pt. 2 Mundane Worlds." Science, Tools & Magic. [London] : The Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press, [1997]. (Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, Vol. 12)

Qur'anic Manuscripts

Actes de la Conférence internationale sur les manuscrits du Coran (Bologne, 26-28 septembre 2002). Mélanges de l'Université Saint-Joseph Volume LIX (2006): 161-405.

Studying the Manuscripts of the Qur’ān, Past and Future 163 François DÉROCHE

Uses and Functions of the Qur’ānic Text 183 Sheila S. BLAIR

Un mode d’emploi du Coran. Note sur les gloses persanes d’un manuscrit coranique d’Asie centrale 209 Marie EFTHYMIOU

The Copying and Handling of Qur’āns: Some Observations on the Kitāb al-Maṣāḥif by Ibn Abī Dā’ūd al-Sijistānī 229 Adam GACEK

De quelques corans chinois et leur papier 253 Geneviève HUMBERT et Annie VERNAY-NOURI

Du fiqh à la codicologie. Quelques opinions de Mālik (m. 179/796) sur le Coran-codex 269 Abdelouahed JAHDANI

Forms of Qur’ānic Manuscripts Among the Yoruba Islamic Scholars of South-Western Nigeria 281 Ismaheel Akinade JIMOH

Disputes in Bukhara on the Persian Translation of the Qur’ān 301 Ashirbek MUMINOV

Ibn Muqla and the Qur’ānic Manuscripts in Oblong Format 309 Valery V. POLOSIN

La réforme de l’écriture arabe à l’époque du califat médinois 319 Christian Julien ROBIN

Repertory of Sūras and Prayers in a Collection of Ottoman Manuscripts 365 Florian SOBIEROJ

The Use of the Qur’ān for Divination in Iran 387 Sergei TOURKIN

The Collection of Qur’ān Manuscripts in the National Library of Russia 395 Olga V. VASILYEVA

Baker, Colin F. Qur'an Manuscripts. Calligraphy, Illumination, Design. London: The British Library, 2007.

Bayani, Manijeh, Anna Contadini and Tim Stanley. The Decorated Word: Qur'ans of the 17th to 19th Centuries. London: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press, 1999. (Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art  v. 4, pt. 1)

Bondarev, Dimitri. "Archaic Kanembu in the Borno Qur’anic Manuscripts: Palaeographic Identification and Problems of Phonological and Morphological Reconstruction." Borno Museum Society Newsletter 63/64 (2005): 5-31. See also the many other outputs of the ENiQMa Project for the study of Early Nigerian Manuscripts (e.g. Palaeography http://www.soas.ac.uk/africa/research/kanuri/subjectareas/palaeography/) and several other Old Kanembu research projects (listed on http://digital.soas.ac.uk/okim).

Brockett, Adrian. "Aspects of the physical transmission of the Qur`an in 19th-century Sudan: Script, binding, decoration and paper." Manuscripts of the Middle East 2 (1987): 45-67

Blair, Sheila and Jonathan Bloom. "Ornamentation and Illumination." In Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe (Leiden: Brill, 2003): III, 593-603

Cortese, Delia. "The Commodification of the Muṣḥaf in the Early Centuries of Islam."  In Writings and Writing : Investigations in Islamic Text and Script in Honour of Dr. Januarius Justus Witkam, Ed. Robert M. Kerr and Thomas Milo (Cambridge: Archetype, 2013): 41-65

Déroche, François. Catalogue des manuscrits arabes, 2e partie, I/2. Les manuscrits du Coran. Du Maghreb à l'Insulinde, Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1985.

_____. The Abbasid Tradition: Qur'ans of the 8th to 10th Centuries AD. London: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press, 1992. (The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art v.1)

_____. "Manuscripts of the Qurʾān." Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, Ed. Jane Dammen McAuliffe (Leiden: Brill, 2001-): III, 254-275.

_____. "Written Transmission." In The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'ān, Ed. Andrew Rippin (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006): 172-186.

_____. La transmission écrite du Coran dans les débuts de l’islam: le codex Parisino-petropolitanus. Leiden: Brill, 2009.

——— . "The codex Parisino-petropolitanus and the hijâzï scripts." In The Development of Arabic as a Written Language. Papers from the Special Session of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held on 24 July, 2009, Ed. M.C.A. Macdonald, Supplement to the Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 40 (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2010): 113-120.

——— . "A Note on the Mediaeval Inventory of the Manuscripts Kept in the Great Mosque of Kairouan." In Writings and Writing : Investigations in Islamic Text and Script in Honour of Dr. Januarius Justus Witkam, Ed. Robert M. Kerr and Thomas Milo (Cambridge: Archetype, 2013): 67-86.

——— . Qurʾans of the Umayyads: A First Overview. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

Duncan, Haldane. "Qur’ans from the Library of the Institute of Ismaili Studies." In Word of God, Art of Man: The Qur'an and Its Creative Expressions: Selected Proceedings From the International Colloquium, London, 18-21 October 2003, Ed. Fahmida Suleman (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007): 51-68.

Dutton, Yasin. "Red dots, green dots, yellow dots & blue: some reflections on the vocalisation of early Qur’anic manuscripts (Part I)." Journal of Qur’anic Studies 1, 1 (1999): 115-140.

——— . "Red dots, green dots, yellow dots & blue: some reflections on the vocalisation of early Qur’anic manuscripts (Part II)." Journal of Qur’anic Studies 2, 1 (2000): 1-24.

Fedeli, Alba. "The Kufic Collection of the Prussian Consult Wetzstein: The 1100 Leaves of the Universitätsbibliothek in Tübingen and their Importance for Palaeography and Qurʾānic Criticism." In Writings and Writing : Investigations in Islamic Text and Script in Honour of Dr. Januarius Justus Witkam, Ed. Robert M. Kerr and Thomas Milo (Cambridge: Archetype, 2013): 117-142

George, Alain. The Rise of Islamic Calligraphy. London: Saqi, 2010.

James, David. Qurʾāns and Bindings from the Chester Beatty Library. A Facsimile Exhibition. London: World of Islam Festival Trust, 1980.

_____. Qurʾāns of the Mamlūks. London: Thames and Hudson, 1988.

_____. The Master Scribes: Qurʾans of the 10th to 14th Centuries AD. London: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press, 1992 (Nasser D. Khalili collection of Islamic art v. 2) 

_____. After Timur: Qurʾāns of the 15th and 16th Centuries. London: Nour Foundation in association with Azimuth Editions and Oxford University Press, 1992 (Nasser D. Khalili collection of Islamic art v. 3)

Lemaistre, Joëlle, Ed. Splendeur et majesté: Corans de la Bibliothèque nationale. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1987.

Lings, Martin. The Quranic Art of Calligraphy and Illumination. London: World of Islam Festival Trust, 1976.

_____. Splendours of Qur'an Calligraphy and Illumination.  London : Thames and Hudson, 2005.

Lings, Martin and Yasin Safadi, The Qurʾān. Catalogue of an Exhibition of Qurʾān Manuscripts at the British Library. London: World of Islam Publishing Co. Ltd for the British Library, 1976.

Rippin, Andrew, Ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Qurʼān. Oxford: Blackwell, 2006.

Safwat, Nabil. Golden Pages: Qur'ans and Other Manuscripts from the Collection of Ghassan I. Shaker. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Schimmel, Annemarie. Calligraphy and Islamic Culture. New York: New York University Press, 1984.

Stanley, Tim. The Qurʾān and Calligraphy: A Selection of Fine Manuscript Material. Bernard Quaritch Catalogue 1213. London: Bernard Quaritch, [1995 or 6].

_____. "Page-setting in Late Ottoman Qur'ans. An Aspect of Standardization." Manuscripta Orientalia. 10/1 (2004): 56-63.

Suleman, Fahmida, Ed. Word of God, Art of Man: The Qur'an and Its Creative Expressions: Selected Proceedings From the International Colloquium, London, 18-21 October 2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2007.

Whelan, Estelle. "Writing the Word of God: Some Early Qurʾān Manuscripts and Their Milieux, Part I." Ars Orientalis 20 (1990): 113-147.

Witkam, Jan Just. "Twenty-nine Rules for Qur'an Copying. A Set of Rules for the Lay-out of a Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Qur'an Manuscript." In Jan Schmidt, ed. Essays in Honour of Barbara Flemming, vol. 2 = Journal of Turkish Studies 26/1 (2002): 339-348.

Reading, Study, Devotion, etc.

Arberry, A. J. A Twelfth-century Reading List: A Chapter in Arab Bibliography. London: E. Walker, 1951. (Chester Beatty Monographs, no. 2)

El-Rouayheb, Khaled. "The Rise of 'Deep Reading' in Early Modern Ottoman Scholarly Culture." In World Philology, eds. Sheldon Pollock, Benjamin A. Elman, and Ku-ming Kevin Chang (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015): 201-224

Hirschler, Konrad. The Written Word in the Medieval Arabic Lands: A Social and Cultural History of Reading Practices. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2012.

Kohlberg, Etan. A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work : Ibn Tawus and His Library. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992.

Liebrenz, Boris. "Lese- und Besitzvermerke in der Leipziger Rifāʻīyah-Bibliothek." In Manuscript Notes as Documentary Sources, Eds. Andreas Görke and Konrad Hirschler (Würzburg : Ergon Verlag in Kommission, 2011): 141-162.

al-Mashūkhī, ʻĀbid Sulaymān. Anmāṭ al-tawthīq fī al-makhṭūṭ al-ʻArabī fī al-qarn al-tāsiʻ al-Hijrī.  al-Riyāḍ : Maktabat al-Malik Fahd al-Waṭanīyah, 1994.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Oral Transmission and the Book in Islamic Education." Journal of Islamic Studies 3, 1 (1992): 1-14.

Rosenthal, Franz. The Technique and Approach of Muslim Scholarship. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1947.

Schoeler, Gregor"The Relationship of Literacy and Memory in the Second/Eighth century." In The Development of Arabic as a Written Language. Papers from the Special Session of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held on 24 July, 2009, Ed. M.C.A. Macdonald, Supplement to the Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 40 (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2010): 121-129. 

Shoshan, Boaz. "High Culture and Popular Culture in Medieval Islam." Studia Islamica 73 (1991): 67-107.

Strauss, Johann. "Who Read What in the Ottoman Empire (19th-20th centuries)?" Middle Eastern Literatures 6, no. i (2003): 39-76.

Toorawa, Shawkat M. Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr and Arabic Writerly Culture: A Ninth-century Bookman in Baghdad. London : Routledge Curzon, 2005.

Scripts and Hands

See the Arabic Script Palaeography page of this guide.

Texts: Authorship and Transmission of Knowledge

see also "V. Transmission of Knowledge" in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)


Berkey, Jonathan. The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo: A Social History of Islamic Education. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Bruns, Gerald L. "The Originality of Texts in a Manuscript Culture." Comparative Literature 32, 2 (Spring 1980): 113-129

Gacek, Adam. "The Copenhagen Manuscript of the Maqāmāt al-Ḥarīriyya copied, illuminated and glossed by the Mamluk litterateur Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Ṣafadī." In  In Writings and Writing : Investigations in Islamic Text and Script in Honour of Dr. Januarius Justus Witkam, Ed. Robert M. Kerr and Thomas Milo (Cambridge: Archetype, 2013): 143-166.

Görke, Andreas and Konrad Hirschler, eds. Manuscript Notes as Documentary Sources. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag in Kommission, 2011.

Heck, Paul L. "The Epistemological Problem of Writing in Islamic Civilization: al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī’s (d.463/1071) 'Taqyīd al-ʻilm.'" Studia Islamica, 94 (2002): 85-114.

Hirschler, Konrad. Medieval Arabic Historiography : Authors as Actors. London: Routledge, 2006.

Keller-Heinkele, Barbara. "The Transmission History of a Text of Joint Authorship." Manuscripts of the Middle East (MME) 3 (1988): 45-53.

Kohlberg, Etan. A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work : Ibn Tawus and His Library. Leiden : E.J. Brill, 1992.

Law and Education in Medieval Islam: Studies in Memory of Professor George Makdisi, Eds. Joseph E. Lowry, Devin J. Stewart, and Shawkat M. Toorawa. [Cambridge, U.K.]: Gibb Memorial Trust, 2004.

Leder, Stefan, Yāsīn Muḥammad al-Sawwās, and Maʾmūn al-Ṣāgharjī. Muʻjam al-samāʻāt al-Dimashqīyah : al-muntakhabah min sanat 550 ilá 750 H / 1155 M ilá 1349 M. Dimashq : al-Maʻhad al-Faransī lil-Dirasāt al-ʻArabīyah, 1996.

Makdisi, George. The Rise of Colleges: Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981.

al-Maslūtī, Muṣṭafá. "al-Ijāzāt al-ʻilmyah wa-ishāmuhā fī al-ḥarakah al-fikrīyah bi-al-Maghrib."  Majallat Dār al-Ḥadīth al-Ḥasanīyah 7 (1989): 238-252.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Oral Transmission and the Book in Islamic Education." Journal of Islamic Studies 3, 1 (1992): 1-14.

Rosenthal, Franz. The Technique and Approach of Muslim Scholarship. Roma: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1947.

Schoeler, Gregor. The Oral and the Written in Early Islam. London ; New York : Routledge, 2006.

——— . The Genesis of Literature in Islam : From the Aural to the Read. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, c2009.

——— . "The Relationship of Literacy and Memory in the Second/Eighth century." In The Development of Arabic as a Written Language. Papers from the Special Session of the Seminar for Arabian Studies held on 24 July, 2009, Ed. M.C.A. Macdonald, Supplement to the Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, 40 (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2010): 121-129. 

Toorawa, Shawkat M. Ibn Abī Ṭāhir Ṭayfūr and Arabic Writerly Culture: A Ninth-century Bookman in Baghdad. London : Routledge Curzon, 2005.

Vajda, Georges. "Quelques certificats de lecture dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris." Arabica, 1, no.3 (1954): 337-342.

——— . Les certificats de lecture et de transmission dans les manuscrits arabes de la Bibliothèque nationale de Paris. Paris:  Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1957.

Witkam, Jan Just. "The Human Element Between Text and Reader. The ijāza in Arabic Manuscripts." In The Codicology of Islamic Manuscripts: Proceedings of the Second Conference of Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 4-5 December 1993, Ed. Yasin Dutton. London, 1995: 123-136.

Transcription / Copying

see also "I. 6. Manuscript production and culture" and "IV. The Text, its composition and arrangement" in Gacek, The Arabic Manuscript Tradition (2001) and Supplement (2008)


Alsancakli, Sacha. “The Role of Copyists in the Transmission of Manuscripts. A Case Study on Šaraf Xān Bidlīsī’s Šarafnāma (1005-1314/1597-1897)”, DYNTRAN Working Papers, no. 23, online edition, April 2017, available at: http://dyntran.hypotheses.org/1826

van Berkel, Maaike. "Reconstructing Archival Practices in Abbasid Baghdad." Journal of Abbasid Studies 1,1 (2014): 7-22

"Craftsmen and the Making of the Manuscript." In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006): 185-204.

Déroche, François. "Copier des manuscrits: remarques sur le travail du copiste." Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée 99-100 (2002): 133-144.

———. "The Copyist’s Working Place: Some Remarks Towards a Reflexion on the Economy of the Book in the Islamic World." In Theoretical Approaches to the Transmission and Edition of Oriental Manuscripts. Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Istanbul March 28-30, 2001, Eds. Judith Pfeiffer and Manfred Kropp (Würzburg, Ergon Verlag, 2007): 203-213.

——— . Qurʾans of the Umayyads: A First Overview. Leiden: Brill, 2014.

Fleischer, Cornell H. "Between the Lines: Realities of Scribal Life in the Sixteenth Century." In Studies in Ottoman History in Honour of Professor V. L. Ménage, Eds. Colin Heywood and Colin Imber (Istanbul: The Isis Press, 1994): 45-61.

Fleming, Barbara. "Literary Activities in Mamluk Halls and Barracks." In Studies in Memory of Gaston Wiet, Ed. Myriam Rosen-Ayalon (Jerusalem: Institute of Asian and African Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1977): 249-260.

Gacek, Adam. "Technical Practices and Recommendations Recorded by Classical and Post-Classical Arabic Scholars Concerning the Copying and Correction of Manuscripts." In Les manuscrits du Moyen-Orient: essais de codicologie et de paléographie, Actes du Colloque d’Istanbul, Istanbul, 26-29 mai 1986, Ed. François Déroche (Paris / Istanbul: Institut français d’études anatoliennes et Bibliothèque Nationale, 1989): 51-60.

———. "Scribes, Amanuenses, and Scholars. A Bibliographic Survey of Published Arabic Literature From the Manuscript Age on Various Aspects of Penmanship, Bookmaking, and the Transmission of Knowledge." Manuscripta Orientalia 10, 2 (2004): 3-29.

———. "Scribes, Copyists." Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, Ed. Josef W. Meri (New York: Routledge, 2006): 2, 704-706.

———. "Taxonomy of Scribal Errors and Corrections in Arabic Manuscripts." In Theoretical Approaches to the Transmission and Edition of Oriental Manuscripts. Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Istanbul March 28-30, 2001, Eds. Judith Pfeiffer and Manfred Kropp (Würzburg: Ergon Verlag, 2007): 217-235, 313-319 (illus.).

Gruendler, Beatrice. "Aspects of Craft in the Arabic Book Revolution." In Globalization of Knowledge in the Post-Antique Mediterranean, 700-1500, edited by Sonja Brentjes and Jürgen Renn (London and New York: Routledge2016): 31-66.

Guesdon, Marie-Geneviève. "Manuscrits et bibliothèques." In L’art du livre arabe: du manuscrit au livre d’artiste, sous la direction de Marie-Geneviève Guesdon and Annie Vernay-Nouri (Paris, BnF, 2001): 19-21.

Quiring-Zoche, Rosemarie. "A Manuscript Copied in Teamwork?" Manuscripta Orientalia 9, 4 (2003): 65-72.

———. "Minhīyāt – Marginalien des Verfassers in arabischen Manuskripten." Asiatische Studien (= Études asiatiques, Suisse) LX, 4 (2006): 987-1019.

———. "The Colophon in Arabic Manuscripts. A Phenomenon Without a Name." Journal of Islamic Manuscripts 4 (2013): 49-81.

Şeşen, Ramazan. "Esquisse d’une histoire du développement des colophons dans les manuscrits musulmans." In Scribes et manuscrits du Moyen-Orient, Eds. François Déroche and Francis Richard (Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France, 1997): 189-221.

Weisweiler, Max. "Arabische Schreiberverse." In Orientalistische Studien. Enno Littmann zu seinem 60, Ed. Rudi Paret (Leiden: Brill, 1935): 101–120. 

Witkam, Jan Just. "Twenty-nine Rules for Qur'ān Copying. A Set of Rules for the Lay-out of a Nineteenth-century Ottoman Qur'ān Manuscript." Journal Of Turkish Studies 26, ii (2002): 339-348.

Writing Material (i.e. Support or Writing Surface)

"III. Writing Surfaces" In the "Guide to Further Reading" of Déroche et al. (p.386 ff.)

"Papers and Papermaking" section of this guide.


Malczycki, W. Matt. "The Papyrus Industry in the Early Islamic Era." Journal of the Economic & Social History of the Orient 54, 2 (2011): 185-202

Richard, Francis. "The Writing Surface: Paper." In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script. (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006): 49-63.

"The Writing Surface: Papyrus and Parchment." In François Déroche, et al. Islamic Codicology: An Introduction to the Study of Manuscripts in Arabic Script. (London: Al-Furqān Islamic Heritage Foundation, 2006): 25-47