Investigators are expected to share with other researchers, at no more than incremental cost and within a reasonable time, the primary data, samples, physical collections and other supporting materials created or gathered in the course of work under NSF grants. Grantees are expected to encourage and facilitate such sharing. See Award & Administration Guide (AAG) Chapter VI.D.4.
Proposals submitted or due on or after January 18, 2011, must include a supplementary document of no more than two pages labeled “Data Management Plan”. This supplementary document should describe how the proposal will conform to NSF policy on the dissemination and sharing of research results. See Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) Chapter II.C.2.j for full policy implementation.
For guidelines from select NSF directorates, please see:
Education & Human Resources Directorate (EHR) (includes brief "examples" at end of document)
See also NSF's FAQ for data management and sharing
"The NIH policy on data sharing applies:
"In NIH's view, all data should be considered for data sharing. Data should be made as widely and freely available as possible while safeguarding the privacy of participants, and protecting confidential and proprietary data."
For more information on NIH's DMP requirements, please see: http://www.grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/data_sharing/data_sharing_guidance.htm
Private foundations may have requirements or guidelines related to data collection and data sharing, which may or may not include a DMP. Requirements may vary by program. Check directly with each organization for specifics.
Read below for more information about data management plan requirements for select federal funding agencies.