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Library Research Guides

Obtaining Copyright Permissions

This guide explains how to obtain copyright permission particularly when using music, movies, and images.

Copyright Questions?

The University of Michigan Library Copyright Office provides help with copyright questions for University of Michigan faculty, staff and students. Please email us with questions or visit our website for more information.

Primary Copyright Resources


Do you need to obtain copyright permission?

Is the work you want to use in copyright? 
Does your use fall outside of Fair Use or another copyright exception?

Then yes, you need to obtain copyright permission! This guide will show you how to locate and contact copyright holders and obtain permission to use copyrighted materials.

For additional assistance with copyright permissions, please contact the U-M Copyright Office

This guide was prepared by Robert Spence, JD candidate, University of Michigan Law School as an extern with the UM Copyright Office in the fall of 2011. We wish to thank Professor Sherri Smith, Professor Michael Rodemer, and their students in the School of Art & Design for their valuable comments.

The information presented here is intended for informational purposes and should not be construed as legal advice. If you have specific legal questions pertaining to the University of Michigan, please contact the Office of the General Counsel.

Fair Use

Fair use allows certain uses of copyrighted material without permission from the copyright holder. There are four factors to consider when determining whether your use is a fair one. You must consider all the factors, but not all the factors have to favor fair use for the use to be fair.

The four fair use factors are

  1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Fair use favors “purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, [and] research.” While many uses for educational purposes are fair, not all are. You need to evaluate your use each time you are reproducing copyrighted material — to show in your class, to hand out copies, to include in your writing, or to post on your course website.

Fair use is codified at 17 U.S.C. § 107.

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Creative Commons

Except where otherwise noted, this work is subject to a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license. For details and exceptions, see the Library Copyright Statement. ©2015, Regents of the University of Michigan