"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances."
The Bill of Rights, Amendment I of the U.S. Constitution
The press has a role as the "fourth estate" of societal power by acting as a watchdog for the public interest.
Trust in a shared objective reality is important to create a society with common ground.
University learning and research promote the value of empirical knowledge and the scientific method for understanding the world around us.
Some introductory sources are provided. The interested researcher is advised to conduct additional searches on these keywords and topics.
Propaganda hinders effective democratic functioning and “results in the manipulation of the mob by the elite.”
Pratkanis, A. R., & Turner, M. E. (1996). Persuasion and democracy: Strategies for increasing deliberative participation and enacting social change. Journal of Social Issues, 52(1), 187–205. (MLibrary Access)
As cited in DiFonzo, N. (2010). Propaganda. In The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (MLibrary Access)
Incorrect or misleading medical information can adversely affect health and delay proper treatment. The impact of advertising and commercial search engine optimization techniques could promote search results to the top of the page from sources with economic interests rather than the most accurate and well-researched information.
As a starting point to further inquiry, here are some examples of discussions about “fake health news” and how poor quality information can impact personal health:
Fake news not only affects individuals on a small scale, but on a larger scale as well. Public health and health policy decisions may be based on political and economic concerns rather than well-rounded research-based information. Health providers must also engage in critical and evidence-based evaluation of health information.
Some relevant discussions related to health policy and fake news include: