Examples of preparing reference citations and the list of works cited are taken from chapters 5 and 6 of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers by Joseph Gibaldi, 7th Edition (available in reference shelves of the Hatcher Graduate Library and the Shapiro Undergraduate Library [where one copy is always held on reserve at the circulation desk], call number PE 1478.G43 2009).
Alphabetize entries in the list of works cited by the author’s last name. If the author is anonymous, alphabetize by title, ignoring initial articles (like “The,” “An,” etc.).
Journals and other periodicals:
The general format for periodicals (items published on a regular basis, like newspapers, magazine, and journals):
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., and C. C. Author. “Title of Article.” Title of
Periodical xx (year): pp-pp. Database name. Medium. Retrieval day,
Retrieval month, retrieval year.
Note: items from this general format should be omitted in not applicable (e.g., print sources do not require “database name,” or retrieval dates. Likewise, materials accessed directly from a publisher website, rather than a database, do not require database name but do require “Web” to account for the medium of access, as well as retrieval dates. (See manual section 5.6).
Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture 10.3
(2000): n. pag. Project Muse. Web. 5 June 2008.
Miller, Steven and Sarah Guyer, eds. Literature and the Right to Marriage. Spec. issue
of Diacritics 35.4 (2005): 1-124. Project Muse. Web. 5 June 2008.
Richardson, Lynda. “Minority Students Languish in Special Education System.” New
York Times 6 April 1994, late ed.: A1+. Pt. 1 of a series, A Class Apart: Special
Education in New York City. LexisNexis. Web. 5 June 2008.
Landauer, Michelle. “Images of Virtue: Reading, Reformation and the Visualization
of Culture in Rousseau’s La nouvelle Héloïse.” Romanticism on the Net 46
(2007): n. pag. Web. 8 Nov. 2007.
Ouellette, Marc. “Theories, Memories, Bodies, and Artists.” Editorial. Reconstruction
7.4 (2007): n. pag. Web. 5 June 2008.
From a Journal with Continuous pagination:
Trumpener, Katie. “Memories Carved in Granite: Great War Memories and Everyday
Life.” PMLA 115 (2000): 1096-1103. Print.
From a Journal that numbers pages in each issue separately:
Barthelme, Frederick. “Architecture.” Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80. Print.
From a Newspaper:
Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New
York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+. Print.
From a Magazine (signed):
Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste.”
Business Week 6 May. 1993: 94-96. Print.
From a Magazine (anonymous):
“Dubious Venture.” Time 3 Jan. 1994: 64-65. Print.
A Work Cited Only on the Web:
Eaves, Morris, Robert Essick, and Joseph Viscomi, eds. The William Blake Archive.
Lib. of Cong., 8 May 2008. Web. 15 May 2008.
A Work on the Web Cited with Print Publication Data:
Bierce, Ambrose. “Academy.” The Devil’s Dictionary. The Collected Works of Ambrose
Bierce. Vol. 7. New York: Neale, 1911. N. pag. The Ambrose Bierce Project.
Web. 15 May 2008.
By a single author:
Franke, Damon. Modernist Heresies: British Library History, 1883-1924. Columbus:
Ohio State UP, 2008. Print.
By Two or More authors:
Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research.
2nd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. Print.
By a Corporate Author:
Urban Land Institute. Cities Post-9/11. Washington: Urban Land Inst., 2002. Print.
Kepner, Susan Fulop, ed. and trans. The Lioness in Bloom: Modern Thai Fiction about
Women. Berkeley: U of California P, 1996. Print.
A Work in an Anthology:
Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth.” Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock between
the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York:
Plume, 1992. 83-88. Print.
An Article in a Reference Book:
“Ginsburg, Ruth Bader.” Who’s Who in America. 62nd ed. 2008. Print.
A Multivolume Work:
Blanco, Richard L., ed. The American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Encyclopedia.
2 vols. Hamden: Garland, 1993. Print.
A Government Publication (manual, section 5.5.20). See also Citing Gov Docs tab:
United States. Cong. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the
United States, September 5, 1774-March 4, 1881. Comp. Benjamin Perley
Poore. 48th Cong., 2nd sess. Misc. Doc. 67. Washington: GPO, 1885. Print.
Parenthetical notes are used instead of footnotes. References in the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of the works cited. Keep parenthetical references as brief, and as few, as clarity and accuracy permit. Usually the author’s last name and a page reference are enough to identify the sources and the specific location: (Townsend 10).
If two or three names begin the entry, give the last name of each person: (Rabkin, Greenberg, and Olander vii).
If the work has more than three authors, follow the form in the bibliographic entry: either give the first author’s last name followed by et al., without any punctuation (Lauter et al. 2425-33) or give all the last names.
If you include the author’s name in a sentence, you need not repeat the name in the parenthetical page citation that follows, provided that the reference is clearly to the work of the author you mention: Tannen has argued this point (178-85).
If you wish to cite an entire work rather than part of the work, it is usually preferable to include the author’s name in the text instead of in a parenthetical reference. But Peter Scotto has offered another view.
When citing a volume number as well as a page reference for a multi-volume work, separate the two by a colon and a space: (Wellek 2: 1-10).
In a parenthetical reference of one of two or more works by the same author, put a comma after the author’s last name and add the title of the work (if brief) or a shortened version and the relevant page reference. (Durant and Durant, Age 214-48).
“Death and Society.” Narr. Joan Silberner. Weekend Edition Sunday. Natl. Public
Radio. WUWM, Milwaukee, 25 Jan. 1990. Radio.
Don Giovanni. By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Perf. James Morris, Bryn Terfel, and
Carol Vaness. Lyric Opera of Chicago. Cond. Yakov Kreizberg. Nuveen-Lyric
Opera of Chicago Radio Network. WFMT, Chicago, 8 June 1996. Radio.
“The Phantom of Corleone.” Narr. Steve Kroft. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New
York, 10 Dec. 2006. Television.
A Sound Recording:
Camper Van Beethoven. “Ambiguity Song.”
Ellington, Duke, cond. First Carnegie Hall Concert. Duke Ellington Orch. Rec. 23 Jan.
1943. Prestige, 1977. LP.
A Film or a Video Recording:
It’s a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel
Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. Film.
A Video on the Web:
Hilary Clinton Sopranos Parody. 19 June 2007. YouTube. Web. 25 June 2009.
Wikis (Because the entries may change, date of last update and retrieval date are very important):
“Hip Hop Music.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Mar. 2006. Web. 18 Mar. 2009.
“Negation in Languages.” UniLang.org. UniLang, 22 Apr. 2006. Web. 9 June 2009.