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COMM 102 Media Processes and Effects

Suggested resources for Comm 102 course on media processes and effects.

American Psychological Association 6th ed. Examples


Examples are taken from Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, “Crediting Sources,” and “Reference Examples.” 

Reference List

Arrange entries in alphabetical order by surname of the first author.  For more than one work by the same author, arrange in date order, earliest first.  One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname.

Journals and other periodicals:

The general format for periodicals (items published on a regular basis, like newspapers, magazines,and  journals):

Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Note:  DOI refers to Digital Object Identifier; see “Electronic Journal Articles,” below. If a DOI is available, include it, for both print and electronic sources (Manual, Section 6.31).

When there are up to seven authors, spell out all authors’ names; beyond that use ellipses before the last author’s name.

Print journal articles (Manual  section 7.01)

Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological  Bulletin, 126, 910-924.

Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen J. A. (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 55, 1040-1049.


Online magazine articles  (Manual section 7.01.8)

Douglas, S. J. (2009, November). Women reach a breaking point. In These Times, 33 (11). Retrieved from

Electronic journal articles

APA style requires the addition of a DOI – Digital Object Identifier – for electronic journal articles if one is available. (Most current journals articles and many historic articles found in PsycINFO will have a DOI.) (Note: your instructor may choose to have you do reference lists in a simpler format. Please check with them if you are not sure.)

If retrieving an article from a private database (examples of private databases include library databases like ProQuest or PsycInfo), it is not necessary to include the database information in your reference. However, if there is no DOI available for a journal article, you should look up the home page URL of the journal and include it in your reference.

·       DOI available (Manual section 6.31, and 7.01.1-2, 5)

Ward, V. (2009). On Yoda, trouble, and transformation: The cultural context of therapy and supervision. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 31(3), 171-176. doi:10.1007/s10591-009-9093-7.

·       No DOI Available – Include the journal’s homepage in the reference 

     (Manual section 7.01.3-4)

Burwen, L., & Campbell, D. (1957). A comparison of test scores and role-playing behavior in assessing superior vs subordinate orientation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 49-56.

·       No DOI, journal is online only (Manual section 7.01.3)

Cooper, A.A. & Humphreys, K.R. (2008). The uncertainty is killing me: self-triage decision making and information availability. E-Journal of Applied Psychology 4(1), 1-6. Retrieved from

Daily newspaper article, no author (Manual section 7.01.10)

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.  

Online newspaper article (Manual section 7.01.11)

Kever, J. (2009, December 16). New college graduates face a tough job market. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved from

Book Citations

Entire book, print version (Manual section 7.02.18)

Shotton, M. A. (1989).  Computer addiction?  A study of computer dependency.  London, England:  Taylor & Francis.

Electronic version of print book  (Manual section 7.02.19)

Shotton, M. A. (1989).  Computer addiction?  A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version].  Retrieved from

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001).  The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook:  A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:  10.1036/0071393722

For an explanation of DOI, see the section on electronic journal articles.

Electronic-only book (Manual section 7.02.20)

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.).  Egoism & the crisis in Western values.  Retrieved from

Book chapter, print version  (Manual section 7.02.25)

Haybron, D. M. (2008).  Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being.  In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.),  The science of subjective well-being (pp.  17-43).  New York, NY:  Guilford Press.

Reference book (Manual section 7.02.27)

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.).  (2007).  APA dictionary of psychology.  Washington, D.C.:  American Psychological Association.

Entry in an online reference work (Manual section 7.02.29)

Graham, G.  (2005).  Behaviorism.  In E. N. Zaita (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.).  Retrieved from

Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor (Manual section 7.02.30)

Heuristic.  (n.d.).  In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.).  Retrieved from


Government report  (Manual section 7.03.31)

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.  (2003).  Managing asthma:  A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650).  Retrieved from

Citing References in Text (Manual, section 6.11)

APA style uses an author-date format for in-text citations. Every reference cited in the text of your document should be included in the reference list.  Generally speaking, the author’s last name and year of publication should be inserted into the text when appropriate.  If the author’s name is part of the narrative, then the publication year alone is included in parentheses.  If the author’s name is not part of the narrative, then both the author’s last name and the publication year is included in the parentheses.

One  author (Manual section 6.11)

Karaka (1884) describes the religious customs and traditions of the Parsis settled in Gujarat.

One of the most prominent men of the time had a close relationship with the British (Karaka, 1884).

Multiple authors (Manual section 6.12)

If a work has two authors, then include both names every time the reference occurs in the text.

Forte and Hewitt (2006) propose the idea that

If there are between three and five authors of a work, use all the authors’ names the first time you refer to the work. For any subsequent references, use the first author’s name followed by et al. (include a period after al.) and the publication year if it is the first citation of this work within a paragraph.

Mack, Behler, Roberts and Rimland (2007) found that students

Mack, et al. (2007) continues on to conclude that

If the work has more than five authors, then use only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the publication year. 

Citations for Other Types of Resources


If you are citing an entire website, and not a specific document from the site, you can simply include the address of the site within the text of your paper (APA Style website, If you are citing a particular document on a website, however, follow the example(s) below.

Web message/post/comment with author listed (Manual section 7.11.74)

Ongmo, S. (2009, December 2). Gross national happiness:  Bring it home to roost [Online forum post]. Retrieved from

Web article with no author listed (

Justice Sotomayor:  A boon for business? (2009). Retrieved from

Blog posts (Manual section 7.11.76)

Use the author’s name if known, otherwise use a screen name.

Hamman, R. (2009, November 9). Curating, not moderating, the flow of content and participation [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Videos on websites such as YouTube (APA refers to these as video blog posts; Manual section7.11.77)

Howcast. (2009, July 1). How to bake cookies on your car’s dashboard [Video file]. Retrieved from


Wikis (Because the entries may change, retrieval date is important. For more information on citing wikis, go to

Propoganda techniques. (n. d.). In SourceWatch. Retrieved from

Motion Pictures (Manual, section 7.07)

Columbus, C., Heyman, D., Radcliffe, M. (Producers) & Cuaron, A. (Director). (2004). Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban [Motion picture].  United States:  Warner Bros.

Television – single episode (Manual, Section 7.07)

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer),House. New York, NY:  Fox Broadcasting.

Advertisements, with title (email correspondence with APA staff, December 2006)

Hostess. (1988, March 9). Eat Twinkies [Advertisement]. Newsweek, 12.

Advertisements, with no title (email correspondence with APA staff, December 2006)

Hostess. (1988, March 9). [Advertisement for Twinkies]. Newsweek, 12.