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Women's Studies 220 / Nursing 220: Women's Health

Supports the research needs of students currently enrolled in Women and Literature: Women's Studies 220.

APA Citation Style

How do I use APA Style? For more information, consult the Purdue OWL APA Format Guide or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (AKA "the AP style guide").

For examples of how to cite particular kinds of sources, see the Purdue OWL APA Format Guide or the examples below.

APA - How to Cite Journals in a Reference List

Bibliographies in APA style are known as reference lists. APA style also requires that you provide in-text citations for the information you provide.

Reference lists provide all of the parts of a citation for the resource beings used (e.g. author, title, year published, journal title, page numbers, etc.).

In-text citations for APA require providing the author's name and the date for when the item was published.

Below are some examples of what citations should look like for the reference list in APA style. The box right below this one will show you what in-text citations should look like in APA style.

References should be listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author listed for a given work.

Journals and Other Periodicals

The general format for periodicals (items published on a regular basis, like newspapers, magazines,and  journals):

Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

[Note:  DOI refers to Digital Object Identifier; see “Electronic Journal Articles,” below. If a DOI is available, include it, for both print and electronic sources.]

Print journal articles

Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological  Bulletin, 126, 910-924.

Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen J. A. (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 55, 1040-1049.

Electronic journal articles

APA style requires the addition of a DOI – Digital Object Identifier – for electronic journal articles if one is available. (Most current journals articles and many historic articles found in PsycINFO will have a DOI.) (Note: your instructor may choose to have you do reference lists in a simpler format. Please check with them if you are not sure.)

If retrieving an article from a private database (examples of private databases include library databases like ProQuest, PsycInfo, or LexisNexis), it is not necessary to include the database information in your reference. However, if there is no DOI available for a journal article, you should look up the home page URL of the journal and include it in your reference.

DOI available 

Ward, V. (2009). On Yoda, trouble, and transformation: The cultural context of therapy and supervision. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 31(3), 171-176. doi:10.1007/s10591-009-9093-7.

·       No DOI Available – Include the journal’s homepage in the reference 

Burwen, L., & Campbell, D. (1957). A comparison of test scores and role-playing behavior in assessing superior vs subordinate orientation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 49-56.

·       No DOI, journal is online only

Cooper, A.A. & Humphreys, K.R. (2008). The uncertainty is killing me: self-triage decision making and information availability. E-Journal of Applied Psychology 4(1), 1-6. Retrieved from

APA - In-Text Citations

APA style uses an author-date format for in-text citations. Every reference cited in the text of your document should be included in the reference list. Generally speaking, the author’s last name and year of publication should be inserted into the text when appropriate.

If the author’s name is part of the sentence you write, then the publication year alone is included at the end of the sentence in parentheses. If the author’s name is not part of the sentence, then both the author’s last name and the publication year is included in the parentheses at the end of the sentence.

One  author

Karaka (1884) describes the religious customs and traditions of the Parsis settled in Gujarat.

One of the most prominent men of the time had a close relationship with the British (Karaka, 1884).

Multiple authors

If a work has two authors, then include both names every time the reference occurs in the text.

Forte and Hewitt (2006) propose the idea that

If there are between three and five authors of a work, use all the authors’ names the first time you refer to the work. For any subsequent references, use the first author’s name followed by et al. (include a period after al.) and the publication year if it is the first citation of this work within a paragraph.

Mack, Behler, Roberts and Rimland (2007) found that students

Mack, et al. (2007) continues on to conclude that

If the work has more than five authors, then use only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the publication year.

APA - How to Cite Books in a Reference List

Entire book, print version

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic version of print book 

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi: 10.1036/0071393722

Electronic-only book

O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from

Book chapter, print version 

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.  17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Reference book

VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.).  (2007).  APA dictionary of psychology.  Washington, D.C.:  American Psychological Association.

Entry in an online reference work

Graham, G.  (2005).  Behaviorism.  In E. N. Zaita (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.).  Retrieved from

Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor 

Heuristic.  (n.d.).  In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.).  Retrieved from


APA - How to Cite Other Types of Resources


If you are citing an entire website, and not a specific document from the site, you can simply include the address of the site within the text of your paper (APA Style website, If you are citing a particular document on a website, however, follow the example(s) below.

Web message/post/comment with author listed 

Ongmo, S. (2009, December 2). Gross national happiness:  Bring it home to roost [Online forum post]. Retrieved from

Web article with no author listed 

Justice Sotomayor:  A boon for business? (2009). Retrieved December 16, 2009 from

Blog posts 

Use the author’s name if known, otherwise use a screen name.

Hamman, R. (2009, November 9). Curating, not moderating, the flow of content and participation [Web log message]. Retrieved from

Videos on websites such as YouTube 

Howcast. (2009, July 1). How to bake cookies on your car’s dashboard [Video file]. Retrieved from

 Motion Pictures 

Columbus, C., Heyman, D., Radcliffe, M. (Producers) & Cuaron, A. (Director). (2004). Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban [Motion picture].  United States:  Warner Bros.

Television – single episode 

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer),House. New York, NY:  Fox Broadcasting.