Problem: Not properly citing sources
Solution: Citation management software, such as Mendeley, RefWorks, Zotero, or EndNote. You can also carefully note citation information by hand in your research notes, then use the References function in Word to add citations.
When to cite: When you have quoted someone exactly (placing the quoted material in quotation marks) or have used original information from someone else & have paraphrased it appropriately.
When you don't have to cite: When you're reporting 1) your own original analysis of other people's original work or 2) common knowledge, that is, information that is commonly known by your peers. Note that this can change, depending on the context of your writing assignment.
Problem: Using someone else's ideas exactly as published.
Solutions: 1) Paraphrase (changing both words and sentence structure) or 2) use the exact quotation & cite the source.
Original text: Ethnic and racial diversity are increasing in many countries, primarily as a result of increased migration linked to globalization of trade, education and markets and to the movement of refugees. This offers formidable challenges in the development of policies and strategies to promote the reduction in inequalities in health and improvements in health care. From ch. 8, Raj S. Bhopal, Migration, Ethnicity, Race and Health in Multicultural Societies, 2d ed., Oxford University Press http://site.ebrary.com/lib/umich/docDetail.action?docID=10823205
Plagiarism: Ethnic and racial diversity are on the rise in many countries, for the most part because of increased migration due to trade around the world, education and markets and to refugees. This makes it hard to develop policies and strategies to reduce inequalities in health and improvements in health care. (12).
This is plagiarism because both the words that are used & the sentence structure are very similar to the original sentence. Providing a citation to the original source of information (the 12, at the end of the sentence) is not enough.
Acceptable: When governments think about developing polices to decrease inequalities in health, it is important to take into account that the rise in refugees and in migration due to trade has increased the variety in racial and ethnicity in many countries. (12).
This is not plagiarism because the information has been summarized using different words & the sentence structure is different from the original text.
Acceptable: According to Raj S. Bhopal, the increase that we can see in diversity throughout the world of racial and ethnic groups "offers formidable challenges in the development of policies and strategies to promote the reduction in inequalities in health and improvements in health care."(12)
This is not plagiarism because a direct quote is used, with quotation marks, & the quotation is properly cited.