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Engineering 100 Section 450

Why Cite?

Webpages expire, books and articles get lost, photographs and films degrade. Citations are necessary to assure that the next researcher can find the same information through different means.

Citing is important for your scholarly credibility, and for building on previous research. You may have a good idea, but simply stating it does not make it true or believable. Give your ideas validity and support by citing established authors.

Avoiding plagiarism is key to academic honesty. Nothing is worse to an author than discovering their hard work has been stolen and claimed as original by someone else. Citations give authors their due credit.

Managing Citations: What are my options?

Citing with IEEE


The IEEE citation style is now widely used in electrical, electronic and computing publications. IEEE provides instructions for authors for each type of publication such as journals, magazines, newsletters, and standards.

IEEE is a numbered style with two components:

  1. In-text references where references are numbered [1] in the order of appearance in the article.  
  2. A reference list, displayed at the end of the article which provides full details of all references cited in-text. The references are ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order).  

For further information, please refer to the guidelines on IEEE Documentation Style from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers site.

In-text references
Using this system, references are numbered in the order in which they are first cited in the text. If the same reference is cited later in the text, the same number is given. For example:

"Another alternative to mitigate sensor occlusions is to rely on external road sensing infrastructure [8]." 

"However, most decision-making approaches for autonomous vehicles to date assume complete knowledge of the states of dynamic objects in the environment [1–6], even if such objects...."