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A Research Course guide for African American Studies 103.04 for the class Race and Presidential Elections


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In June 2020, the "defund the police" slogan gained widespread popularity during the George Floyd protests.[6] 

Black Lives MatterMovement for Black Lives, and other activists have used the phrase to call for police budget
reductions and to delegate certain police responsibilities to other organizations.
Black Reconstruction, first published in 1935, W. E. B. Du Bois wrote about "abolition-democracy",
which advocated for the removal of institutions that were rooted in racist and repressive practices,
including prisons, convict leasing, and white police forces. In the 1960s, activists such as 
Angela Davis
advocated for the defunding or abolition of police departments.
[15] The End of Policing, written by Alex S. Vitale,
was published in 2017, and it has been called "... a manual of sorts for the defund movement."

     Arrieta-Kenna, Ruairí.Politico, Arlington: POLITICO LLC. Jun 12, 2020.

The End of Policing, Alex S. Vitale, 2017