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Library Research Guides

African American Studies 202: Introduction to Afro-Caribbean Studies

The course introduces studients to Afro-Caribbean fiction writers

MLA handbook for writers of research papers.

ISBN: 1603290249

Citation Generators

Having trouble formatting your citations? Use one of these tools to automatically generate a citation for books, journals, newspapers and more in APA, MLA, or Chicago style.

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MLA Works Cited Examples

Examples of preparing reference citations and the list of works cited are taken from chapters 5 and 6 of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers by Joseph Gibaldi, 7th Edition (available in reference shelves of the Hatcher Graduate Library and the Shapiro Undergraduate Library [where one copy is always held on reserve at the circulation desk], call number PE 1478.G43 2009).

Alphabetize entries in the list of works cited by the author’s last name. If the author is anonymous, alphabetize by title, ignoring initial articles (like “The,” “An,” etc.).

Journals and other periodicals:

The general format for periodicals (items published on a regular basis, like newspapers, magazine, and journals):


            Author, A. A., Author, B. B., and C. C. Author. “Title of Article.” Title of

Periodical xx (year): pp-pp. Database name. Medium. Retrieval day, 

Retrieval month,  retrieval year.


Note: items from this general format should be omitted in not applicable (e.g., print sources do not require “database name,” or retrieval dates. Likewise, materials accessed directly from a publisher website, rather than a database, do not require database name but do require “Web” to account for the medium of access, as well as retrieval dates. (See manual  section 5.6).


A Periodical Publication in an Online Database (Manual, section 5.6.4):


Chan, Evans. “Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema.” Postmodern Culture 10.3

(2000): n. pag. Project Muse. Web. 5 June 2008.


Miller, Steven and Sarah Guyer, eds. Literature and the Right to Marriage. Spec. issue

            of Diacritics 35.4 (2005): 1-124. Project Muse. Web. 5 June 2008.


Richardson, Lynda. “Minority Students Languish in Special Education System.” New

            York Times 6 April 1994, late ed.: A1+. Pt. 1 of a series, A Class Apart: Special

            Education in New York City. LexisNexis. Web. 5 June 2008.


An Online Scholarly Journal accessed directly (Manual, section 5.6.3):


 Landauer, Michelle. “Images of Virtue: Reading, Reformation and the Visualization

            of Culture in Rousseau’s La nouvelle Héloïse.” Romanticism on the Net 46

(2007): n. pag. Web. 8 Nov. 2007.


Ouellette, Marc. “Theories, Memories, Bodies, and Artists.” Editorial. Reconstruction

            7.4 (2007): n. pag. Web. 5 June 2008.


Print Journal Articles (Manual, section 5.4.2):


From a Journal with Continuous pagination:

Trumpener, Katie. “Memories Carved in Granite: Great War Memories and Everyday

Life.” PMLA 115 (2000): 1096-1103. Print.


From a Journal that numbers pages in each issue separately:

Barthelme, Frederick. “Architecture.” Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80. Print.


From a Newspaper:

Jeromack, Paul. “This Once, a David of the Art World Does Goliath a Favor.” New

            York Times 13 July 2002, late ed.: B7+. Print.


From a Magazine (signed):

Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohen. “A Thousand-Year Plan for Nuclear Waste.”

            Business Week 6 May. 1993: 94-96. Print.


From a Magazine (anonymous):

“Dubious Venture.” Time 3 Jan. 1994: 64-65. Print.


Nonperiodical Digital Materials (Manual, section 5.6.2):


A Work Cited Only on the Web:

Eaves, Morris, Robert Essick, and Joseph Viscomi, eds. The William Blake Archive.

            Lib. of Cong., 8 May 2008. Web. 15 May 2008.


A Work on the Web Cited with Print Publication Data:

Bierce, Ambrose. “Academy.” The Devil’s Dictionary. The Collected Works of Ambrose

            Bierce. Vol. 7. New York: Neale, 1911. N. pag. The Ambrose Bierce Project.

Web. 15 May 2008.

Nonperiodical Print Materials (Manual, section 5.5):


By a single author:

Franke, Damon. Modernist Heresies: British Library History, 1883-1924. Columbus:

            Ohio State UP, 2008. Print.


By Two or More authors:

Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research.

2nd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003. Print.


By a Corporate Author:

Urban Land Institute. Cities Post-9/11. Washington: Urban Land Inst., 2002. Print.


An Anthology:

Kepner, Susan Fulop, ed. and trans. The Lioness in Bloom: Modern Thai Fiction about

            Women. Berkeley: U of California P, 1996. Print.


A Work in an Anthology:

Allende, Isabel. “Toad’s Mouth.” Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock between

the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York:

Plume, 1992. 83-88. Print.


An Article in a Reference Book:

“Ginsburg, Ruth Bader.” Who’s Who in America. 62nd ed. 2008. Print.


A Multivolume Work:

Blanco, Richard L., ed. The American Revolution, 1775-1783: An Encyclopedia.

2 vols. Hamden: Garland, 1993. Print.


A Government Publication (manual, section 5.5.20).  See also Citing Gov Docs tab:

United States. Cong. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Government Publications of the

United States, September 5, 1774-March 4, 1881. Comp. Benjamin Perley

Poore. 48th Cong., 2nd sess. Misc. Doc. 67. Washington: GPO, 1885. Print.