For examples of how to cite particular kinds of sources, see the Purdue OWL APA Format Guide or the examples below.
Bibliographies in APA style are known as reference lists. APA style also requires that you provide in-text citations for the information you provide.
Reference lists provide all of the parts of a citation for the resource beings used (e.g. author, title, year published, journal title, page numbers, etc.).
In-text citations for APA require providing the author's name and the date for when the item was published.
Below are some examples of what citations should look like for the reference list in APA style. The box right below this one will show you what in-text citations should look like in APA style.
References should be listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author listed for a given work.
Journals and Other Periodicals
The general format for periodicals (items published on a regular basis, like newspapers, magazines,and journals):
Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
[Note: DOI refers to Digital Object Identifier; see “Electronic Journal Articles,” below. If a DOI is available, include it, for both print and electronic sources.]
Print journal articles
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924.
Saywitz, K. J., Mannarino, A. P., Berliner, L., & Cohen J. A. (2000). Treatment for sexually abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist, 55, 1040-1049.
Electronic journal articles
APA style requires the addition of a DOI – Digital Object Identifier – for electronic journal articles if one is available. (Most current journals articles and many historic articles found in PsycINFO will have a DOI.) (Note: your instructor may choose to have you do reference lists in a simpler format. Please check with them if you are not sure.)
If retrieving an article from a private database (examples of private databases include library databases like ProQuest, PsycInfo, or LexisNexis), it is not necessary to include the database information in your reference. However, if there is no DOI available for a journal article, you should look up the home page URL of the journal and include it in your reference.
Ward, V. (2009). On Yoda, trouble, and transformation: The cultural context of therapy and supervision. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 31(3), 171-176. doi:10.1007/s10591-009-9093-7.
· No DOI Available – Include the journal’s homepage in the reference
Burwen, L., & Campbell, D. (1957). A comparison of test scores and role-playing behavior in assessing superior vs subordinate orientation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 46, 49-56. http://www.heldref.org/pubs/soc/about.html
· No DOI, journal is online only
Cooper, A.A. & Humphreys, K.R. (2008). The uncertainty is killing me: self-triage decision making and information availability. E-Journal of Applied Psychology 4(1), 1-6. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejap
APA style uses an author-date format for in-text citations. Every reference cited in the text of your document should be included in the reference list. Generally speaking, the author’s last name and year of publication should be inserted into the text when appropriate.
If the author’s name is part of the sentence you write, then the publication year alone is included at the end of the sentence in parentheses. If the author’s name is not part of the sentence, then both the author’s last name and the publication year is included in the parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Karaka (1884) describes the religious customs and traditions of the Parsis settled in Gujarat.
One of the most prominent men of the time had a close relationship with the British (Karaka, 1884).
If a work has two authors, then include both names every time the reference occurs in the text.
Forte and Hewitt (2006) propose the idea that
If there are between three and five authors of a work, use all the authors’ names the first time you refer to the work. For any subsequent references, use the first author’s name followed by et al. (include a period after al.) and the publication year if it is the first citation of this work within a paragraph.
Mack, Behler, Roberts and Rimland (2007) found that students
Mack, et al. (2007) continues on to conclude that
If the work has more than five authors, then use only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the publication year.
Entire book, print version
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.
Electronic version of print book
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index/asp
Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi: 10.1036/0071393722
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from http://www.onlineorginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135
Book chapter, print version
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Entry in an online reference work
Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zaita (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved fromhttp://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/
Entry in an online reference work, no author or editor
Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic
If you are citing an entire website, and not a specific document from the site, you can simply include the address of the site within the text of your paper (APA Style website, http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/cite-website.aspx). If you are citing a particular document on a website, however, follow the example(s) below.
Web message/post/comment with author listed
Ongmo, S. (2009, December 2). Gross national happiness: Bring it home to roost [Online forum post]. Retrieved from http://globalvoicesonline.org/2009/12/02/gross-national-happiness-bring-it-home-to-roost/
Web article with no author listed
Justice Sotomayor: A boon for business? (2009). Retrieved December 16, 2009 from http://www.ns.umich.edu/htdocs/releases/story.php?id=7449
Use the author’s name if known, otherwise use a screen name.
Hamman, R. (2009, November 9). Curating, not moderating, the flow of content and participation [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://www.cybersoc.com/2009/11/curating-not-moderating-the-flow-of-content-and-participation.html
Videos on websites such as YouTube
Howcast. (2009, July 1). How to bake cookies on your car’s dashboard [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0lgg_qKaqw
Columbus, C., Heyman, D., Radcliffe, M. (Producers) & Cuaron, A. (Director). (2004). Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros.
Television – single episode
Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer),House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.