Transliteration (called Romanization when converting to Latin characters) is essential for searching in online catalogues, databases, indexes, full text collections, etc. Systems vary considerably by publication / electronic resource / scholarly community / language of influence. Most North American library catalogues (including our local catalogue) use the Library of Congress (ALA / LC) Romanization system. For comparison of various transliteration systems, see the samples linked below along with Thomas T. Pedersen’s comparison tables.
Sampling of Transliteration / Romanization Systems
Transliteration Comparison Tables (Thomas T. Pedersen)